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To The Queen

                                             Oxford, January 4, 1646

Dear Heart,

I desired thee to take notice that with the year I begin to new number my letters, hoping to begin a year's course of good luck. I have heard of but seen no letters from thee since Christmas Day; the reason is evident, for our intelligence with the Portugal's agent is obstructed, so that I am not so confident as I was that any of my letters will come safe to thee. But methinks, if Cardinal Mazarin were but half so kind to us as he professes to be, it would be no great difficulty for him to secure our weeekly intelligence. And in earnest I desire thee to put him to it, for besides that, if the effects of it succeed, it will be of great consequence to me, I shall very much judge of the reality of his intentions according to his answer in this. If Ashburnham complain to thee of my wilfulness, I am sure it is that way which at least thou wilt excuse, if not justify in me; but, if thou hadst seen a former paper (to which being but an accessory I must not blame his judgement), thou wouldst have commended my choleric rejection of it, the aversion to which it is possible (though I will not confess it until thou sayest so) might have made me too nice in this, of which I will say no more; but consider well that which I sent in the place of it, and then judge.

My great affairs are so much in expectation that for the present I can give thee but little account of them, albeit yet in conjecture (as I believe) that the rebels will not admit of my personal treaty at London, and I hope well of having 2,000 foot and horse, out of my smaller garrisons. As for the Scots, we yet hear no news of them, neither concerning this treaty, nor of that which I have begun with David Lesley. And, lastly, that the Duke of York's journey is absolutley broken both in respect of the loss of Hereford, as that the relief of Chester is yet but very doubtful. But upon this design, having commanded Sir George Radcliffe to wait upon him, I desire thy approbation that he may be sworn gentleman of his bedchamber, for which, though he be very fit, and I assure thee that he is far from being a Purinan, and that it will be much for my son's good to have hiim settled about him, yet I would not have him sworn without thy consent. So God bless thee, sweetheart.

Charles R.


Even now Mornteuil is come hither concerning this treaty. The Queen cannot hae a particular account of it till my next.   Charles great friend a confidant was George Villiers, Earl of  Buckingham. Charles called him Steenie. This letter was written at the time when James was unhappy with the young prince Charles. Many will say Charles was in his pocket until the Earl's assasination, when the same people will say charles moved in to Henrietta's pocket.

Steenie,

There is none that know me so well as yourself, what dutiful respect and love I have ever, and shall ever carry to the King; and therfore you may judge what grief it is to me to have the ill fortune as that any of my actions should bear so ill an interpretation as I find by your letter, this message I sent by me Lond Montgomery has borne. I will no ways stand upon my justification, but desire that my good meaning may be taken instead of the ill message. That which made me think that this message would not desplease the King, was the command you know he gave me a good while ago, that I should use all means to make the Queen make a will whereby she should make over to me her jewels; therfore, I sent to have the King's approbation of that which I thought he had desired, and therefore I thought he would rather be glad than any way despleased with the message. My meaning was never to claim anything as of right,but to submit myself as well in this as in all other things to the King's pleasure. It doth grieve me much that the King should be so much moved with it as you say he is, for the least show of his displeasure would make me leave to meddle or think of any such thing any more, without shwing himself openly so angry with me. To conclude, I pray you to commend my most humble service to His Majesty, and tell him that I am very sorry that I have done anything to offend him and that I will be content to have any penance inflicted upon me so he may forgive me, anthough I had never a thought nor never shall have to displease him; yet I deserve to be punished for my ill-fortune, So, hoping never to have occasion to write to you of so ill a subject again, but of many better, I rest,

Your true, constant, loving friend,       Charles P.


I had written to the King before I received yours, but I hope you will mend anything that is amiss in the other with this, for I did not think the King had been so angry before I received yours.   In 1621 Parliament discussed foreign policy. This was not the duty of parliaments at the time and James used his precedent to stop them. This was an indication of what was to come during Charles' reign, as Parliament were at loggerheads with the King over their 'privileges'. Charles wanted to control foreign policy particularly because his daugher Elizabeth: sister of Charles, had been defeated at White Mountain by the Imperialists (Catholics) when she and her husband Frederick were voted King and Queen of Bohemia. Frederick was the Elector Palatine but after the defeat of White mountain he and Elizabeth lost both Bohemia and the Palatine. The Protestant cause in Europe was looking grim and James wanted to restore his son in law and his daughter to the throne. Charles makes is oppinions clear about this matter in these two letters to Buckingham.

Letter 1.

Steenie

The Lower House this day has been a little unruly; but I  hope it will turn to the best; for, before they rose, they began to be ashamed of it. Yet I could wish that the King would send down a commission here, that (if need were) such seditious fellows might be made an example to others, by Monday next, and till then I would let them alone. It will be seen whether they mean to do good, or to persist in thier follies; so that the King needs to be patient but a little while.

I have spoken with so many of the council, as the King trusts most, and they are all of his mind, only the sending of authority to set seditious fellows fast is of my adding. I defy thee in being more mine than I am,

The constant, loving friend,

Charles P.

Friday, November 3, 1621.


Letter 2.

Steenie,

This day the Lower House has given the King a subsidy, and are likewise resolved to send a message, humbly to entreat him to end this session before Christmas. I confess that this they have done is not so great a matter that the King need to be indulgent over them for it; yet, on the other side (for his reputation abroad at this time), I would not wholly discontent them; therefore, my opinion is, that the King should grant them a session at this time, but withal I should have him command them not to speak any more of Spain, whether it be of that war or my marriage.

This, in my opinion, does neither suffer them to encroach upon the King's authority, nor give them just cause of discontentment. I think you will find that all those of the Council that the King trusts most, are likewise of this mind. Sir Edward Cecil wrote me a letter from the Army, of much stuff, but it was of fashion; the most of the letter was of reasons why the King should enter into a war for the defence of the Palatinate, and trust no more treaties. Now, in earnest, I wish the gentleman well, but yet I would not have Sir Horace Vere (who has both endured so much misery, and so good service there) either to be discouraged or disgraced; therefore I think the King shall do well to employ Cecil, but I would not have him come over other's head. So, praying you commend my humble service to the King, I rest

Yours more than can be expressed, and as much as can be thought,

                          Charles P.

With a great deal of frustration James disolved Parliament in January, though it adjurned anyway just before Christmas. Parliament could not come to a consensus about agreeing funds to support a restoration of the King and Queen of Bohemia to the throne. Diplomacy was tried next. James tried to marry his son Charles to Philip IV of Spain's daughter on the agreement that Frederick and Elizabeth should be restored. Negotiations were slow however and Charles with Buckingham and a few attendants attempted to woo the princess.

Charles and Buckingham to James I

Paris, Saturday, February 22, 1623.

Dear Dad and Gossip,

We are sure before this, you have longed to have some news from your boys; but before this time we have not been able to send it you; and we do it with this confidence, that you will be as glad to read it as we to write, though it be now our best entertainment. And that we may give the perfector account, we will begin this where my last ended.

First, about five or six o'clock on Wednesday morning, we wish to say, the first that fell sick was your son, and he that continued it longest was myself. In six hours we got over with as fair a passage as ever men had. We all got so perfectly well, when we but saw land, that we resolved to spend the rest of the day in riding post; and lay at Montreuil, three post off Boulogne. The next day we lay at Breteuil, eleven post farther; and the next to Paris, though no great need of it; yet I had four falls by the way, without any harm. Your son's horses stumble as fast as any man's; but he is so much more stronger before than he was. He holds them up by main strength of mastery, and cries still on! on!!! This day we went, he and I alone, to a perriwig-maker, where we disguised ourselves so artificially that we adventured to see the King. The means how we did compass it was this: we addressed ourselves to the King's governor, Monsieur du Proes, and he courteously carried us where we saw him our fill. Then we desired Monsieur Proes to make us acquainted with his son, because we would trouble the old man no longer, which he did; and then we saw the Queen-Mother at dinner. This evening his son hath promised us to see the young Queen, with her sister and little Monsieur. I am sure now you fear we shall be discovered; but do not fright yourself; for I warrant you the contrary. And finding this might be done with safety, we had a great tickling to add it to the history of our adventures.

To-morrow, which will be Sunday, we will be (God willing) up so early, that we make no question but to reach Orleans; and so every day after we mean to be gaining something, till we reach Madrid. I have nothing more to say, but to recommend my poor little wife and daughter to your care (and) that you will bestow your blessing upon

              Your humble and obedient son and servant,
                          Charles.
                Your humble slave and dog,
                             Steenie.


On this occasion, Charles would have seen is actual future wife, the princess Henrietta and her mother, who was at that time the Queen mother since the death of her husband Henry IV. The Queen of France was Anne, daughter of Philip III of Spain, the sister of the Infanta Maria whom Charles was on his way to woo.

This event is much quoted as an indication of Charles's poor judgement and willingness to act upon a whim. I will follow this with other similar letters but it is worth remembering previous posts where Charles is concerned for the future of his sister in Bohemia and was desperate to help restore her to the throne through diplomacy/marriage to the Princess of Spain. This is however an example of his frustration with Parliament for their inability to arrange finances for a war to restore his sister.   Charles and Buckingham to James I

Sir,
     Since the closing of our last, we have been at court again (and that we might not hold you in pain, we assure you we have not been known), where we saw the young Queen, little Monsieur, and Madame, at the practising of a mask that is intended by the Queen to be presented to the King; and in it there danced the Queen and Madame, with as many as made up nineteen fair dancing ladies, amongst which the Queen is the handsomest, which hath wrought in me a greater desire to see her sister. So in haste, going to bed, we humbly take our leaves, and rest,

                      Your Majesty's most humble and obedient son and servant,
                                           Charles.
                      And your humble slave and dog,
                                             Steenie


Paris, February 22, 1623.

Charles and Buckingham to James I

Dear Dad and Gossip,

We are now got into Spain, free from harm of falls, in as perfect health as when we parted, and underscovered by any Monsieur. We met Gresley a post beyound Bayonne. We saucily opened your letters, and found nothing either in that or any other which we could understand without a cipher, that hath made us repent our journey; but, by the contrary, we find nothing but particulars hastened, and your business so slowly advanced, that we think ourselves happy that we have begun it so soon; for yet the temporal articles are not concluded, nor will not be, till the dispensation comes, which may be, God knows when; and when that time shall come, they beg twenty days to conceal it, upon pretext of making preparations: this bearer's errand was answered by our journey thither, yet we have thought it fit he should go forward to bring you certain news of your boys, that crave your blessing, and rest.

         Your Majesty's humble and obedient son and servant,
                                     Charles.
         And your humble slave and dog,
                                     Steenie.

When Charles and Buckingham arrived in Madrid, marriage negotiations started in ernest. The Spannish never had any intention of supporting the marriage and helping England to reintstate the Elector Palatine. The victor of White mountain over the Elector was after all his own cousin. There was no way Charles was ever going to agree to a conversion to Catholicism and a dispensation would be needed for the marriage. That would take valuable time that the Spannish could use to get some concessions out of the English.

Charles and Buckingham to James I

Dear Dad and Gossip,                               March 10, 1623.

On Friday last we arrived here, at five o'clock at night, both in perfect health; the cause that we advertised you of it no sooner was, that we knew you would be glad to hear as well of the manner of our reception, as our arrival. First we resolved to discover the wooer, because, upon the speedy opening of the ports, we found posts making such haste after us, that we knew not it would be discovered within twelve hours after, and better we have the thanks of it than a postilion. The next morning we sent for Gondomar, who went presently to the Count of Olivares, and as speedliy got me your dog Steenie a private audience of the King; when I was to return back to my lodgings, the count of Olivares himself alone would acompany me back again to salute the Prince in the King's name. The next day we had a private visit of the King, the Queen, the Infanta, Don Carlos, and the Cardinal, in the sight of all the world, and I may call it a private obligation hidden from nobody; for there was the Pope's nuncio, the Emperor's ambassador, the French, and all the streets filled with guards and other people: before the King's coach went the best of the nobility, after followed all the ladies of the court: we sat in an invisible coach, because nobody was suffered to take notice of it, though seen by all the world. In this form they passed three times by us; but, before we could get away, the Count of Olivares came into our coach and conveyed us home, where he told us the King longed and died for want of a nearer (sight) of our wooer. First, he took me in his coach to go to the King; we found him walking in the street, with his cloak thrown over his face, and a sword and buckler by his side; he leaped into the coach, and away he came to find the wooer in another place appointed, where there passed much kindness and compliment one to another. Your may judge by this how sensible the King is of your son's journey; and if we can either judge by outward shows, or general speeches, we have reason to condemn your ambassadors for rather writing too sparingly than too much.

To conclude, we find the Count of Olivares so over-valuing of our journey, that he is so full of real courtesy, that we can do no less than beseech Your majesty to write the kindest letter of thanks and acknowledgement you can unto him: he said, no later to us than this morning, that, if the Pope would give a dispensation for the wife, they would give the Infanta to thy son's baby as a wench; and hath this day written to the Cardinal Ludovisio, the Pope's nephew, that the King of England hath put such an obligation upon this King, in sending his son hither, that he entreats him to make haste with the dispensation, for he can deny him nothing that is in his kingdon. We must hold you this much long to tell you, the Pope's nuncio works as maliciously and as activeily as he can against us, but he receives such rude answers, that we hope he will be soon weary on't: we make this collection of it, that the Pope will be very loath to grant a dispensation, which, if he will not do, then we would gladly have your direction how far we may engage you in the acknowledement of the Pope's special power; for we almost find, if you will be contented to acknowledge the Pope chief head under Christ, that the match will be made without him. So, craving your blessing, we rest

Your Majesty's humble and obedient son and servant,
         Charles.
Your humble slave and dog,
         Steenie.


Pope Gregory XV delayed in offereing a dispensation and set conditions that James would find iimpossible to meet.

Charles and Buckingham to James I

Dear Dad and Gossip,

That your majesty may be the more particularly informed of all, we will observe our former order to begin still where we left, which was, we think, at the King's private visit in the night. The next day your baby desired to kiss his hands privately in the palace, which was granted, and thus performed. First, the king would not suffer him to come to his chamber, but met him at the stair-foot; then entered into the coach, and walked into his park. The greatest matter that passed between them at that time, was compliments, and particular questions of our journey; then, by force, he would needs carry him half-way home, in which doing, they were both almost overthrown in brick-pits. Two days afer, we met with His Majesty again in his park, with his two brothers; they spent their time in seeing his men kill partridges flying and conies running, with a gun. Yesterday, being Sunday, your baby went to a monastery called St. jeronimo's, to dinner, which stands a little out of the town. After dinner came all the councillors in order, to welcome your baby; then came the king himself, with all his nobility, and made their entry, with as great triumph as could be, where he forced your baby to ride on his right hand, which he observes always. This entry was made just as when the Kings of Castille come first to the crown: all prisoners set at liberty, and no office of matters of grace falls, but is put in your baby's hands to dispose.

We trouble Your Majesty more particularly with these things of ceremony, that you may be better able to guide yourself towards this nobleman, who is sent of purpose to advertise you of your son's safe arrival here, for sooner than he was received in the palace, they took no notice of his coming. We had almost forgotten to tell you, that the first thing they did at their arrival into the palace was the visiting of the Queen, where grew a quarrel between your baby and lady, for want of a salutation; but your dog's opinion is, that this is an artifical forced quarrel, to beget hereafter the greater kindness.

For our main and chief business, we find them by outward shows as desirous of it as ourselves, yet are they hankering upon a conversion; for they say, there can be no friendship without union in religion, but put no question in bestowing their sister, and we put the other quite out of question, because neither our conscience nor time serves for it, and because we will not implicitly rely upon them. For fear of delays (which we account the worst denial), we intend to send, with all speed, Michael Andrew, to come to bring us certain word from Gage, how he finds our business prosper there, according to which we will guide ourselves. Yet ever resolving to guide ourselves by your directions, so craving your blessing we end

    Your Majesty's humble son and servant,
                    Charles.

I beseech Your Majesty advise as little with your Council in these businesses as you can. I hope in writing jointly as we do, we please you best, for I assure Your Majesty, it is not for saving pains. This King did entreat me to send Your Majesty a great recantho in his name (which is a compliment), for which, in my poor opinion, it will not be amiss for Your majesty to write him a letter of thanks for all the favours he has done me since I came hither, with that of the Count of Olivares.

                               Charles.
           Your Majesty's humble slave and dog,
                               Steenie.
Madrid, the 17th of March, 1623.


Charles and Buckingham to James I

Dear Dad and Gossip,

Since the writing of our other letter we have received news from Rome, which we send you here enclosed; you will find Gage hath a good hope of soon affecting the dispensation: we think our sending Michael Andrew thither will do not hurt. We are glad this paper gives us room to quarrel (with) you, for not sending to us all this while, for though we hear often from you by reports, yet nothing can satisfy except we have it under you own hand; therefore we beseech you to do it as oft as you can. So craving your blessing, we end

 Your Majesty's humble and obedient son and servant,
          Charles.
    Your Majesty's humble slave and dog,
          Steenie.

Madrid, 25th of March, 1623.

        Charles and Buckingham to James I

                                            March 27, 1623.

Dear Dad and Gossip,

According to our promise in our last, we write to you this day again, for our post is not yet parted; and that this may not altogether be empty, we think it not amiss to assure you, that neither in spiritual nor temporal things there is anything pressed upon us more than is already agreed upon. Fain would they, in this time of expecting the dispensation, have treated upon the ends and effects of friendship; but we have avoided it with so many forcible arguments, that they now rest satisfied. They were likewise in hope of a conversion of us both; but now excuses are more studied than reasons for it, though they say their love shall ever make them wish it. To conclude, we never saw the business in a better way than now it is; therefore we humbly beseech you lose no time in hasting the ships, that we may make the more haste to beg that personally which now we do by letter - your blessing.

   Your Majesty's humble and obedient son and servant,
                            Charles.
        Your Majesty's humble slave and dog,
                            Steenie.

Madrid.

                        To the Pope
                                                         April 20, 1623.
Your Holiness' letters I have received with no less gratitude and reverence than that feeling of uncommon good will and piety demanded, wherewith I know they have been indicted. And that exhortation from Your Holiness has been to me especially welcome, that you have set before me the examples of my ancestors, which can never be sufficiently commended for my inspection and imitation. They, although they encountered the difficulty of various fortunes, and the danger of life itself, that they might more widely propagate the Christian faith; yet never did they carry the standard of Christ's cross against his most violent enemies with a more cheerful spirit than I will use and endeavour, that the peace and unity of the Christian commonwealth, which hath been so long banished, may be brought back, returning, as it were, from captivity or the grave; for, since the subtlety and malice of the father of discords hath sown the seeds of such unhappy differences among those who profess the Christian religion, this measure I deem most necessary, in order to promote more successfully the hallowed glory of God and our Saviour, his Christ; and I shall esteem it no less honour to myself to tread in the well-worn track of my ancestors, and to approve myself a zealous imitator of them in holy and religious undertakings, than to have derived my descent and origin from them. And to this same the inclination of my lord King and father very much fires me, and the ardent desire, wherewith he is animated to put forth a helping hand to so pious a work, as well as the grief which preys upon his royal breast, when he weighs and ponders what cruel slaughters, what deplorable calamities have arisen from the dissensions of Christian Princes.

Further - the judgement which Your Holiness hath formed of my desire of contracting affinity and marriage with the house of the Catholic prince, is a test both of your charity and wisdom; for never should I feel so earnest as I do to be joined to any one living in that close and indissoluble bond, whose religion I hated. Wherefore by Your Holiness persuaded that I am and ever shall be of such moderation as to keep aloof, as far as possible, from every undertaking, which may testify any hatred towards the Roman Catholic religion; nay, rather I will seize all opportunities, by a gentle and generous mode of conduct, to remove all sinister suspicions entirely; so that, as we all confess one undivided Trinity, and one Christ crucified, we may be banded together unanimously unto one faith. That I may accomplish this, I will reckon as trifling all my labours and vigilance, and even the hazards of Kingdoms, and life itself.
It remaineth only that, in returning Your Holiness the greatest possible thanks for the letters which I hold in the light of an illustrious gift, I pray for your every prosperity and happiness everlasting.

        Your Holiness's most devoted,
                            Charles P.

Although Charles was seeking a dispensation from the Pope, the promises here are unconditional. The young Charles is only twenty two years of age when he writes this letter to the Pope, assuring him of his intentions towards Religious reform in England. He is answering the Pope's questions of concern about a Protestant and Catholic marriage. Prince Charles reassures him that his intention is to reform religion so that both Catholicism and Protestantism can be drawn together in one faith. He pledges his life and future Kingdom on this principle. At his life's end he never broke this promise, and the underlined bold, and underlined part of his letter (my doing), are almost a prophecy.   Negotiations continued, so that Charles and Buckingham could bring around the Pope and the Spanish King, to the diplomatic wedding that would reinstate Charles' sister to the throne of Bohemia.


Charles and Buckingham to James I
                                                                 April 23, 1623. Madrid
Dear Dad and Gossip

We are sorry we are not able to continue the advertisement of the dispensation's arrival; it is certainly granted, and is as certainly upon the way hither; and although clogged with some new condition, yet such as we hope to remove with ease. They are these; two years more to the education of the children; no other oath to be ministered to the Roman Catholic subjects than that which is given to the Infanta's subjects, and that they may all have free access to her church. We hope in granting the first, yet making it hard, we shall not only facilitate the other two conditions, but, in a little time herafter, bring more years back again with the two; to this we both recommend secrecy here, and to you there. If we receive your directions in time to this, we will punctually follow them. To the second our answer will be, the oath was made by Act of Parliament, and that you cannot abrogate it without the whole consent of your people. In the last, we hope to let them see, as it will bring but a pester and inconvenience to the Infanta herself, so it will less satisfy the Catholics, because it will make the act more public and less useful to their ends, than to have the exercises of their consciences freely in their own houses; for all meeting in one centre, the number will seem greater, and so make the State jealouser, and consequently make their security more uncertain, this being no less than in covered words to ask liberty of conscience, which you have neither mind nor power to grant; many other reasons we have, and so powerful, that we make neither question to speed the business end, nor to end it to your own liking, which sweet Jesus grant, and your blessing to Your Majesty's humble and obedient son and servant,
                             Charles.
      Your Majesty's humble slave and dog,
                             Steenie.

Charles and Buckingham to James I

Sir,

I confess that you have sent more jewels than (at my departure) I thought to have had use of; but, since my coming, seeing many jewels worn here, and that my bravery can consist of nothing else, besides that some of them which you have appointed me to give to the Infanta, in Steenie's opinion and mine, are not fit to be given to her; therefore I have taken this boldness to entreat Your Majesty to send more for my own wearing, and for giving to my mistress, in which I think Your Majesty shall not do amiss to take Carlisle's advice. So, humbly craving your blessing, I rest Your Majesty's humble and obedient son and servant,
                                Charles.

I, your dog, says you have many jewels, neither fit for your son's nor your daughter's wearing, but very fit to bestow on those who must necessarily have presents, and this way will be least chargeable to Your Majesty in my poor opinion.
                                             Madrid, the 22nd of April, 1623.

Charles and Buckingham to James I
                                                         Madrid, April 27, 1623.
Dear Dad and Gossip,
Michael Andrew is now come back from Rome, but the dispensation got hither before him; that you may the better judge of the conditions it is clogged with, we have sent you Gage's letters; this comfort yourself with, that we will not be long before we get forth of this labyrinth, wherein we have been entangled these many years; we beseach Your Majesty be secret in the conditions, and be assured we will yield to nothing but what you may perform both with your honour and conscience; if you should not keep them so, it will beget dispute, censures, and conclusions there to our prejudice. The chief end of sending this post, is to tell you that the Groyne is resolved on to be the fittest port for your ships, and us here; wherefore we pray Your Majesty to make no delay, but to send them with all speed thither. Sir, I, Steenie, am commanded by my wife to trouble you with a deed of honour and charity, to have a care of the widow, Mistress Murray, whom you promised in her husband's time to provide for, and her seven children. We have been both much comforted with the return of d**k Graeme, who hath made to me, your dog, in particular, such a relation of Your Majesty's constant care and love of me, in my absence, that now I shall follow your advice with a cheerful heart though not with a more trusful nor affectionate one; for he hath told me your carriage hath been such, that it hath calmed the mad malice of all my enemies, which was no small grief to me to hear they were of so great a number; and for that honour ( he had been made Duke of Buckingham), which Your Majesty tells me my Lord Treasurer hath been an importunate suitor for, though not a secret one, give me leave, out of the pride of my heart, to say, whesoever anything proceeds otherwise than immediately from your heart and affection, I shall kiss it, and lay it down at your feet again, for hitherto  you have accustomed me to no other. Out of a certain report here that you had done it, I sent Edward Clarke purposely to entreat you to undo it, or to add one more for my sake; but now that it is undone, which I thank God heartily for, I beseech Your Majesty humbly on my knees, to let it remain so, till I have the happiness to speak with yourself, which is infinitely desired by your two boys that crave your blessing.
                    P.S. by Prince Charles.
We send this post with such speed, that we have no time to write this better.

Your Majesty's humble and obedient son and servant,
                      Charles.


To James I
                                                           Madrid, April 29, 1623
Sir,

I do find that, if I have not somewhat under Your Majesty's hand to show, whereby that you engage yourself to do whatsoever I shall promise in your name, that it will retard the business a great while; wherefore I humbly beseech Your Majesty to send me a warrant to this effect:

'We do hereby promise, by the word of a King, that whatsoever you, our son, shall promise in our name, we shall punctually perform.'

Sir, I confess that is an ample trust that I desire; and if it were not mere necessity, I should not be so bold, yet I hope Your Majesty will never repent you of any trust you put upon

Your Majesty's humble and obedient son and servant,
                      Charles.