Sir Richard Molyneux
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The Cavalier in Exile
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Sir Egerton Brydges
Life of Margaret
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shire, (as before is mentioned) who promised him Ten thousand men for that purpose, though they came short of their performance, marched near the Town of Kin gstone upon Hull, and besieged that part of the Garison that bordered on York-shire, for a certain time; in which time the Enemy took the courage to sally out of the Town with a strong party of Horse and Foot very early in the morning, with purpose to have forced the Quarters of a Regiment of my Lords Horse, that were quarter’d next the Town; but by the vigilancy of their Commander Sir Marmaduke Langdale, afterwards Lord Langdale, his Forces being prepared for their reception, they received such a Welcome as cost many of them their Lives, most of their Foot (but such as were slain) being taken Prisoners; and those of their Horse that escaped, got into their Hold at Hull.

The Enemy thus seeing that they could do my Lords Army no further damage on that side of the River in York-shire, endeavoured by all means (from Hull, and other con federate places in the Eastern parts of the Kingdom) to form a considerable party to annoy and disturb the Forces raised by my Lord in Lincoinshire, and left there for the protection of that County; where the Enemy being drawn together in a body, fought my Lords Forces in his absence, and got the honour of the day near Hornby Castle in that County; which loss, caused partly by their own rashness, forced my Lord to leave his design upon Hull, and to march back with his Army to York, which was in



October, 1643, where he remained but a few dayes to refresh his Army, and receiving intelligence that the Enemy was got into Derbyshire, and did grow numerous there, and busie in seducing the people, that Country being under my Lords Command, he resolved to direct his March thither in the beginning of November, 1643, to suppress their further growth; and to that end quarter’d his Army at Chesterfield, and in all the parts thereabout, for a certain time.

Immediately after his departure from York to Pomfret, in his said March into Derbyshire, the City of York sent to my Lord to inform him of their intention to chuse another Mayor for the year following, desiring his pleasure about it: My Lord, who knew that the Mayor for the year before, was a person of much Loyalty and Discretion, declared his mind to them, That he thought it fit to continue him Mayor also for the year following; which it seems they did not like, but resolved to chuse one which they pleased, contrary to my Lords desire. My Lord perceiving their intentions, about the time of the Election, sent orders to the Governour of the City of York, to permit such Forces to enter into the City as he should send; which being done accordingly, they upon the Day of the Election repaired to the Town-Hall, and with their Arms staid there until they had continued the said Mayor according to my Lords desire.

During the time of my Lords stay at Chesterfield in Derbyshire, he ordered some part of his Army to march before a strong



House and Garison of the Enemies, call’d Wing field Mannor, which in a short time they took by storm. And when my Lord had raised in that County as many Forces, Horse and Foot, as were supposed to be sufficient to preserve it from the fury of the Enemy, he armed them, and constituted an Honourable Person Commander in Chief of all the Forces of that County, and of Leicestershire ; and so leaving it in that condition, marched in December 1643, from Chesterfield to Bolsover in the same County, and from thence to Welbeck in Nottingham- shire, to his own House and Garison, in which parts he staid some time, both to refresh his Army, and to settle and reform some disorders he found there, leaving no visible Enemy behind him in Derbyshire, save onely an inconsiderable party in the Town of Derby, which they had fortified, not worth the labour to reduce it.

About this time the report came, that a great Army out of Scotland, was upon their march towards the Northern parts of England, to assist the Enemy againt His Majesty, which forced the Nobility and Gentry of Yorkshire to invite my Lord back again into those parts, with promise to raise for his service, an Army of 10000 men; My Lord (not upon this proffer, which had already heretofore deceived him, but out of his Loyalty and duty to preserve those parts which were committed to his care and protection) returned in the middle of January 1643. And when he came there, he found not one man raised to assist him against so



powerful an Army, nor an intention of raising any ; Wherefore he was necessitated to raise himself, out of the Countrey, what forces he could get, and when he had settled the affairs in York-shire as well as time and his present condition would permit, and constituted an honourable Person Governour of York and Commander in chief of a very considerable party of horse and foot for the defence of the County (for Sr. Thomas Glemham was then made Colonel General, and marched into the Field with the Army) he took his march to Newcastle in the be ginning of February 1643, to give a stop to the Scots army.

Presently after his coming thither with some of his Troups, before his whole army was come up, he received intelligence of the Scots Armie’s near approach, whereupon he sent forth a party of horse to view them, who found them very strong, to the number of 22000 Horse and Foot well armed and commanded: They marched up towards the Town with such confidence, as if the Gates had been open’d for their reception and the General of their Army seem’d to take no notice of my Lords being in it, for which afterwards he excused himself; but as they drew near, they found not such entertainment as they expected; for though they assaulted a Work that was not finished, yet they were beaten off with much loss.

The Enemy being thus stopt before the Town, thought fit to quarter near it, in that part of the Country; and so soon as my Lords Army was come up. he designed one



night to have fallen into their Quarter; but by reason of some neglect of his Orders in not giving timely notice to the party designed for it, it took not an effect answerable to his expectation. In a word, there were three Designs taken against the Enemy, whereof if one had but hit, they would doubtless have been lost; but there was so much Treachery, Jugling and Falshood in my Lord’s own Army, that it was impossible for him to be successful in his Designs and Undertakings. However, though it failed in the Enemies Foot-Quarters, which lay nearest the Town; yet it took good effect in their Horse-Quarters, which were more remote; for my Lord’s Horse, Commanded by a very gallant and worthy Gentleman falling upon them, gave them such an Alarm, that all they could do, was to draw into the Field, where my Lord’s Forces charged them, and in a little time routed them totally, and kill’d and took many Prisoners, to the number of 1500.

Upon this the Enemy was forced to draw their whole Army together, and to quarter them a little more remote from the Town, and to seek out inaccessible places for their security, as afterwards appear’d more plainly; for so soon as my Lord had pre pared his Army for a March, he drew them forth against the Scots, which he found quarter’d upon high Hills close by the River Tyne, where they could not be encounter’d but upon very disadvantagious terms; besides, that day proved very stormy and tempestuous, so that my Lord was necessi-



tated to withdraw his Forces, and retire into his own Quarters.

The next day after, the Scots Army finding ill harbour in those quarters, marched from hill to hill into another part of the Bishoprick of Durham, near the Sea coast, to a Town called Sunderland; and thereupon my Lord thought fit to march to Durham, to stop their further progress, where he had contrived the business so, that they were either forced to fight or starve within a little time. The first was offered to them twice, that is to say, at Pensher-hills one day, and at Bowden-hills another day in the Bishoprick of Durham: But my Lord found them at both times drawn up in such places, as he could not possibly charge them; wherefore he retired again to Durham, with an intention to streighten their Quarters, and to wait upon them, if ever they left their Holds and inaccessible places. In the mean time it hapned that the Earl of Montross came to the same place, and having some design for his Majesties service in Scotland, desired My Lord to give him the assistance of some of his Forces; and although My Lord stood then in present need of them, and could not conveniently spare any, having so great an Army to oppose; yet out of a desire to advance His Majesties service as much as lay in his power, he was willing to part with 200 Horse and Dragoons to the said Earl.

The Scots perceiving My Lords vigilancy and care, contented themselves with their own quarters, which could not have serv’d



them long, but that a great misfortune befel My Lords Forces in York-shire ; for the Governour whom he had left behind with sufficient Forces for the defence of that Country, although he had orders not to encounter the Enemy, but to keep himself in a defensive posture; yet he being a man of great valour and courage, it transported him so much that he resolved to face the Enemy, and offering to keep a Town that was not tenable, was utterly routed, and himself taken Prisoner, although he fought most gallantly.

So soon as my Lord received this sad Intelligence, he upon Consultation, and upon very good Grounds of Reason, took a resolution not to stay between the two Armies of the Enemies, viz, the Scots and the English, that had prevailed in York shire; but immediately to march into York shire with his Army, to preserve (if possible) the City of York out of the Enemies hands which retreat was ordered so well, and with such excellent Conduct, that though the Army of the Scots marched close upon their Rear, and fought them every day of their retreat, yet they gained several Passes for their security, and entred safe and well into the City of York, in April 1643.

My Lord being now at York, and finding three Armies against him, viz, the Army of the Scots, the Army of the English that gave the defeat to the Governour of York, and an Army that was raised out of associate Counties, and but little Ammunition and Provision in the Town; was forced to send



his Horse away to quarter in several Counties, viz. Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicester shire, for their subsistance, under the Con duct of his Lieutenant-General of the Horse, My dear Brother Sir Charles Lucas, himself remaining at York, with his Foot and Train for the defence of that City.

In the mean time, the Enemy having closely besiedged the City on all sides, came to the very Gates thereof, and pull’d out the Earth at one end, as those in the City put it in at the other end; they planted their great Cannons against it, and threw in Granadoes at pleasure: But those in the City made several sallies upon them with good success. At last, the General of the associate Army of the Enemy, having closely beleaguer’d the North side of the Town, sprung a Mine under the wall of the Mannor yard, and blew part of it up; and having beaten back the Town-Forces (although they behaved themselves very gallantly) enter’d the Mannor-house with a great number of their men, which as soon as my Lord perceived, he went away in all haste, even to the amazement of all that were by, not knowing what he intended to do; and drew 8o of his own Regiment of Foot, called the White-Coats, all stout and valiant Men, to that Post, who fought the Enemy with that courage, that within a little time they killed and took 1500 of them; and My Lord gave present order to make up the breach which they had made in the wall; Where upon the Enemy remain’d without any other attempt in that kind, so long, till



almost all provision for the support of the soldiery in the City was spent, which never theless was so well ordered by my Lords Prudence, that no Famine or great extremity of want ensued.

My Lord having held out in that manner above two Months, and withstood the strength of three Armies ; and seeing that his Lieutenant-General of the Horse whom he had sent for relief to His Majesty, could not so soon obtain it (although he used his best endeavour) for to gain yet some little time, began to treat with the Enemy; ordering in the mean while, and upon the Treaty, to double and treble his Guards. At last after three Months time from the beginning of the Siege, His Majesty was pleased to send an Army, which joining with my Lords Horse that were sent to quarter in the aforesaid Countreys, came to relieve the City, under the Conduct of the most Gallant and Heroick Prince Rupert, his Nephew; upon whose approach near York, the Enemy drew from before the City, into an entire Body, and marched away on the West-side of the River Owse, that runs through the City, His Majesties Forces being then of the East-side of that River.

My Lord immediately sent some persons of Quality to attend His Highness, and to invite him into the City to consult with him about that important Affair, and to gain so much time as to open a Port to march forth with his Cannon and Foot which were in the Town, to join with His Highness’s Forces; and went himself the next day in person to



wait on His Highness ; where after some Conferences, he declared his Mind to the Prince, desiring His Highness not to attempt any thing as yet upon the Enemy; for he had intelligence that there was some discontent between them, and that they were resolved to divide themselves, and so to raise the Siege without fighting : Besides, my Lord expected within two dayes, Collonel Cleavering, with above three thousand men out of the North, and two thousand drawn out of several Garisons, (who also came at the same time, though it was then too late). But His Highness answered my Lord, That he had a Letter from His Majesty (then at Oxford) with a positive and absolute Command to fight the Enemy; which in Obedience, and according to his Duty he was bound to perform. Whereupon my Lord replied, That he was ready and willing for his part, to obey his Highness in all things, no other wise then if His Majesty was there in Person Himself; and though several of my Lords Friends advised him not to engage in Battel, because the Command (as they said) was taken from Him: Yet my Lord answer’d them, That happen what would, he would not shun to fight, for he had no other ambition but to live and dye a Loyal Subject to His Majesty.

Then the Prince and my Lord conferr’d with several of their Officers, amongst whom there were several Disputes concerning the advantages which the Enemy had of Sun, Wind and Ground. The Horse of His Majesties Forces, was drawn up in both



Wings upon that fatal Moor call’d Hessom Moor; and my Lord ask’d His Highness what Service he would be pleas’d to command him; who return’d this Answer, That he would begin no action upon the Enemy, till early in the morning; desiring my Lord to repose himself till then. Which my Lord did, and went to rest in his own Coach that was close by in the Field, until the time appointed.

Not long had My Lord been there, but he heard a great noise and thunder of shooting, which gave him notice of the Armies being engaged: Whereupon he immediately put on his Arms, and was no sooner got on Horse-back, but he beheld a dismal sight of the Horse of His Majesties right Wing, which Out of a panick fear had left the Field, and run away with all the speed they could; and though my Lord made them stand once, yet they immediately betook themselves to their heels again, and killed even those of their own party that endeavoured to stop them; the Left Wing in the mean time, Commanded by those two Valiant Persons, the Lord Goring, and Sir Charles Lucas, having the better of the Enemies Right Wing, which they beat back most valiantly three times, and made their General retreat, in so much that they sounded Victory.

In this Confusion my Lord (accompanied onely with his Brother Sir Charles Cavendish, Major Scot, Capt. Marine, and his Page) hastning to see in what posture his own Regiment was, met with a Troop of Gentle men-Voluntiers, who formerly had chosen



him their Captain, notwithstanding he was General of an Army; to whom my Lord spake after this manner: Gentlemen, said he, You have done me the Honour to chuse me your Captain, and now is the fittest time that I may do you service ; wherefore if you’l follow me, I shall lead you on the best I can, and shew you the way to your own Honour. They being as glad of my Lords Profer, as my Lord was of their Readiness, went on with the greatest Courage; and passing through Two Bodies of Foot, engaged with each other not at forty yards distance, received not the least hurt, although they fired quick upon each other ; but marched towards a Scots Regiment of Foot, which they charged and routed; in which Encounter my Lord himself kil’d Three with his Pages half leaden Sword, for he had no other left him; and though all the Gentlemen in particular, ofIer’d him their Swords, yet my Lord re fused to take a Sword of any of them. At last, after they had pass’d through this Regiment of Foot, a Pike-man made a stand to the whole Troop; and though my Lord charg’d him twice or thrice, yet he could not enter him; but the Troop dispatched him soon.

In all these Encounters my Lord got not the least hurt, though several were slain about him; and his White-Coats shew’d such an extraordinary Valour and Courage in that Action, that they were kill’d in Rank and File: And here I cannot but mention by the way, That it is remarkable, that in all actions and undertakings where My Lord



was in Person himself, he was always Victorious, and prospered in the execution of his designs; but whatsoever was lost or succeeded ill, happen’d in his absence, and was caused either by the Treachery, or Negligence and Carelesness of his Officers.

My Lord being the last in the Field, and seeing that all was lost; and that every one of His Majesties Party made their escapes in the best manner they could; he being moreover inquired after by several of his Friends, who had all a great love and respect for my Lord, especially by the then Earl of Craford (who lov’d my Lord so well that he gave 20s. to one that assured him of his being alive and safe, telling him, that that was all he had) went towards York late at night, accompanied onely with his Brother, and one or two of his servants; and coming near the Town, met His Highness Prince Rupert, with the Lieutenant General of the Army, the Lord Ethyn; His Highness asked My Lord how the business went ? To whom he answered, That all was lost and gone on their side.

That night my Lord remained in York; and having nothing left in his power to do his Majesty any further service in that kind; for he had neither Ammunition, nor Money to raise more Forces, to keep either York, or any other Towns that were yet in His Majesties Devotion, well knowing that those which were left could not hold out long, and being also loath to have aspersions cast upon him, that he did sell them to the Enemy, in case he could not keep them, he took a



Resolution, and that justly and honourably, to forsake the Kingdom; and to that end, went the next morning to the Prince, and acquainted him with his Design, desiring His Highness would be pleased to give this true and just report of him to his Majesty, that he had behaved himself like an honest man, a Gentleman, and a Loyal subject. Which request the Prince having granted, my Lord took his leave; and being con ducted by a Troop of Horse, and a Troop of Dragoons to Scarborough, went to Sea, and took shipping for Hamborough; the Gentry of the Country, who also came to take their leaves of My Lord, being much troubled at his departure, and speaking very honourably of him, as surely they had no reason to the contrary.