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After I was safely arrived at London, I found my Lord in Lodgings; I cannot call them unhandsome; but yet they were not fit for a Person of his Rank and Quality, nor of the capacity to contain all his Family: Neither did I find my Lord’s Condition such as I expected : Wherefore out of some passion I desir’d him to leave the Town, and retire into the Countrey; but my Lord gently reproved me for my rashness and impatience, and soon after removed into Dorset-house; which, though it was better then the former, yet not altogether to my satisfaction, we having but a part of the said House in possession. By this removal I judged my Lord would not hastily depart from London; but not long after, he was pleased to tell me, That he had dispatched his business, and was now resolved to remove into the Country, having already given order for Waggons to transport our goods, which was no unpleasant news to me, who had a great desire for a Countrey life.

My Lord before he began his Journey, went to his Gracious Soveraign, and begg’d leave that he might retire into the Countrey, to reduce and settle, if possible, his con fused, entangled, and almost ruined Estate, Sir, said he to His Majesty, I am not ignorant, that many believe I am discontented; and ‘tis probable they’l say, I retire through discontent: But I take God to witness, That I am in no kind or ways displeased for I am so joyed at your Majesties happy Restaurcs lion, that I cannot be sad or troubled for any

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Concern to my own particular; but whatsoever Your Majesty is pleased to command me, were it to sacrifice my Life, I shall most obediently perform it; for I have no other Will, but Your Majesties Pleasure.

Thus he kissed His Majesty’s hand, and went the next day into Nottingham to his Mannor-house call’d Welbeck; but when he came there, and began to examine his Estate, and how it had been ordered in the time of his Banishment, he knew not whether he had left any thing of it for himself, or not, till by his prudence and wisdom he inform’d himself the best he could, examining those that had most knowledg therein. Some Lands, he found, could be recover’d no further then for his life, and some not at all: Some had been in the Rebels hands, which he could not recover, but by His Highness the Duke of York’s favour, to whom His Majesty had given all the Estates of those thai were condemned and executed for murdering his Royal Father of blessed memory, which by the Law were forfeited to His Majesty; whereof His Highness graciously restor’d my Lord so much of the Land that formerly had been his, as amounted to 7301. a year. And though my Lord’s Children had their Claims granted, and bought out the life of my Lord, their Father, which came near upon the third part, yet my Lord received nothing for him self out of his own Estate, for the space of eighteen years, viz. During the time from the first entring into Warr, which was June ii. 1642, till his return out of Banishment,

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May 28. 1660; for though his Son Henry, now Earl of Ogle, and his eldest Daughter, the now Lady Cheiny, did all what lay in their power to relieve my Lord their Father, and sent him some supplies of moneys at several times when he was in banishment; yet that was of their own, rather then out of my Lord’s Estate; for the Lady Cheiny sold some few Jewels which my Lord, her Father, had left her, and some Chamber- Plate which she had from her Grandmother, and sent over the money to my Lord, besides 1000l. of  her Portion: And the now Earl of Ogle did at several times supply my Lord, his Father, with such moneys as he had partly obtained upon Credit, and partly made by his Marriage.

After my Lord had begun to view those Ruines that were nearest, and tried the Law to keep or recover what formerly was his, (which certainly shew’d no favour to him, besides that the Act of Oblivion proved a great hinderance and obstruction to those his designs, as it did no less to all the Royal Party) and had setled so much of his Estate as possibly he could, he cast up the Summ of his Debts, and set out several parts of Land for the payment of them, or of some of them (for some of his Lands could not be easily sold, being entailed) and some he sold in Derbyshire to buy the Castle of Nottingham, which although it is quite ruined and demolisht, yet, it being a seat which had pleased his Father very much, he would not leave it since it was offer’d to be sold.

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His two Houses Welbeck and Bolsover he found much out of repair, and this later half pull’d down, no furniture or any necessary Goods were left in them, but some few Hangings and Pictures, which had been saved by the care and industry of his Eldest Daughter the Lady Cheiny, and were bought over again after the death of his eldest Son Charles, Lord Mansfield; for they being given to him, and he leaving some debts to be paid after his death, My Lord sent to his other Son Henry, now Earl of Ogle, to endeavour for so much Credit, that the said Hangings and Pictures (which my Lord esteemed very much, the Pictures being drawn by Van Dyke) might be saved; which he also did, and My Lord hath paid the debt since his return.

Of eight Parks, which my Lord had before the Wars, there was but one left that was not quite destroyed, viz. Welbeck-Park of about four miles compass; for my Lord’s Brother Sir Charles Cavendish, who bought out the life of my Lord in that Lordship, saved most part of it from being cut down; and in Blore Park there were some few Deer left : The rest of the Parks were totally defaced and destroyed, both Wood, Pales and Deer; amongst which was also Clipson-Park of seven miles compass, wherein my Lord had taken much delight formerly, it being rich of Wood, and containing the greatest and tallest Timber-trees of all the Woods he had in so much, that onely the Pale-row was valued at 20001. It was water’d by a pleasant River that runs through it, full

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of fish and Otters; was well stock’d with Deer, full of Hares, and had great store of Partriges, Poots, Pheasants, &.c. besides all sorts of Water-fowl; so that this Park afforded all manner of sports, for Hunting, Hawking, Coursing, Fishing, &c. for which my Lord esteemed it very much: And although his Patience and Wisdom is such, that I never perceived him sad or discontented for his own Losses and Misfortunes, yet when he beheld the ruines of that Park, I observed him troubled, though he did little express it, onely saying, he had been in hopes it would not have been so much defaced as he found it, there being not one Timber-tree in it left for shelter. However he patiently bore what could not be helped, and gave present order for the cutting down of some Wood that was left him in a place near adjoining, to replace it, and got from several Friends Deer to stock it.

Thus though his Law-suits and other un avoidable expences were very chargeable to him, yet he order’d his affairs so prudently, that by degrees he stock’d and manur’d those Lands he keeps for his own use, and in part repaired his Mannor-houses, Welbeck and Bolsover, to which latter he made some additional building; and though he has not yet built the Seat at Nottingham, yet he hath stock’d and paled a little Park belonging to it.

Nor is it possible for him to repair all the ruines of the Estate that is left him, in so short a time, they being so great, and his losses so considerable, that I cannot without

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grief and trouble remember them; for be fore the Wars my Lord had as great an Estate as any subject in the Kingdom, descended upon him most by Women, viz. by his Grandmother of his Father’s side, his own Mother, and his first Wife.

‘What Estate his Grandfather left to his Father Sir Charles Cavendish, I know not; nor can I exactly tell what he had from his Grandmother, but she was very rich; for her third Husband Sir Will. Saint Loo, gave her a good Estate in the West, which after wards descended upon my Lord, my Lord’s Mother being the younger daughter of the Lord Ogle, and sole Heir, after the death of her eldest Sister Jane, Countess of Shrews- bury, whom King Charles the First restored to her Fathers Dignity, viz. Baroness of Ogle This Title descended upon my Lord and his Heirs General, together with 30001. a year in Northumberland; and besides the Estate left to my Lord, she gave him 200001. in Money, and kept him and his Family at her own charge for several years.

My Lord’s first Wife, who was Daughter and Heir to William Basset of Blore, Esq; Widow to Henry Howard, younger Son to Thomas Earl of Suffolk, brought my Lord 24001. a Year Inheritance, between six and seven thousand Pounds in Money, and a jointure for her life of 8001. a Year. Besides my Lord increased his own Estate before the Wars, to the value of 100000l. and had increased it more, had not the unhappy Wars prevented him; for though he had some disadvantages in his Estate, even

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before the Wars, yet they are not consider able to those he suffered afterwards for the service of his King and Country: For ex ample, His Father Sir Charles Cavendish had lent his Brother in Law Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury 16000l. for which, although afterward before his death he setled 20001.

a year upon him; yet he having injoyed the said Money for many years without paying any use for it, it might have been improved to my Lord’s better advantage, had it been in his Fathers own hands, he being a Person of great prudence in managing his Estate; and though the said Earl of Shrewsbury made my Lord his Executor, yet my Lord was so far from making any advantage by that Trust, even in what the Law allowed him, that he lost I7000l. by it; and afterwards delivered up his Trust to William Earl of Pembrook, and Thomas Earl of Arundel, who both married two Daughters of the said Earl of Shrewsbury; And since his return into England, upon the desire of Henry Howard, Second Son to the late Earl of Arundel, and Heir apparent, (by reason of his Eldest Brother’s Distemper) he resigned his Trust and Interest to him, which certainly is a very difficult business, and yet questionable whether it may law fully be done, or not ? But such was my Lord’s Love to the Family of the Shrews- buries, that he would rather wrong himself, then it.

To mention some lawful advantages which my Lord might have made by the said Trust, it may be noted in the first place, That the

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Earl of Shrewsbury’s Estate was Let in long Leases, which, by the Law, fell to the Executor. Next, that after some Debts and Legacies were paid out of those Lands, which were set out for that purpose, they were setled so, that they fell to my Lord. Thirdly, Seven hundred pounds a year was left as a Gift to my Lord’s Brother, Sir Charles Cavendish, in case the Countess of Kent, Second Daughter to the said Earl of Shrews- bury, had no Children. But my Lord never made any advantage for himself, of all these; neither was he inquisitive whether the said Countess of Kent cut off the Entail of that Land, although she never had a Child; for my Lord’s Nature is so generous, that he hates to be Mercenary, and never minds his own profit or Interest in any Trust or Employment, more then the good and benefit of him that intrusts or employs him.

But, as I said heretofore, these are but petty Losses in comparison of those he sustained by the late Civil Warrs, whereof I shall partly give you an account I say partly; for though it may be computed what the loss of the Annual Rents of his Lands amounts to, of which he never received the least worth for himself and his own profit, during the time both of his being employed in the Service of Warr, and his Sufferings in Banishment; as also the loss of those Lands that are alienated from him, both in present possession, and in reversion; and of his Parks and Woods that were cut dwon ; yet it is impossible to

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render an exact account of his Personal Estate.

As for his Rents during the time he acted in the Warrs, though he suffer’d others to gather theirs for their own use, yet his own either went for the use of the Army, or fell into the hands of the Enemy, or were sup press’d and with-held from him by the Cozenage of his Tenants and Officers, my Lord being then not able to look after them himself.

About the time when His late Majesty undertook the expedition into Scotland for the suppressing of some insurrection that happened there; My Lord, as afore is mentioned, amongst the rest, lent His Majesty 10000l. sterling; But having newly married a Daughter to the then Lord Brackly, now Earl of Bridgwater, whose portion was 120001. the moiety whereof was paid in Gold on the day of her marriage, and the rest soon after (although she was too young to be bedded). This, together with some other expences, caused him to take up the said 10000l. at Interest, the Use whereof he paid many years after.

Also when after his sixteen years Banishment, he returned into England, before he knew what Estate was left him, and was able to receive any Rents of his own, he was necessitated to take 5000l. upon Use for the maintenance of himself and his Family; whereof the now Earl of Devonshire, his Cousin German, once removed, lent him 1000l. for which and the former 1000l. mentioned heretofore, he never desired nor

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received any Use from my Lord, which I mention, to declare the favour and bounty of that Noble Lord.

But though it is impossible to render an exact account of all the losses which My Lord has sustained by the said Wars, yet as far as they are accountable, I shall endeavour to represent them in these following Particulars

In the first place, I shall give you a just particular of My Lords Estate in Lands, as it was before the Wars, partly according to the value of his own Surveighers, and partly according to the rate it is let, at this present.

Next, I shall accompt the Woods cut down by the Rebellious Party, in several places of My Lords Estate.

Thirdly, I shall compute the Value of those Lands which My Lord hath lost, both in present possession, and in reversion that is to say, those which he has lost alto gether, both for himself, and his Posterity; and those he has recovered onely during the time of his life, and which his onely Son and Heir, the now Earl of Ogle, must lose after his Fathers decease.

Fourthly, I shall make mention, how much of Land my Lord hath been forced to sell for the payment of some of his Debts, contracted during the time of the late Civil Wars, and when his Estate was sequestred; I say some, for there are a great many to pay yet.

To which I shall, Fifthly, add the com position of his Brothers Estate; and the loss of it for Eight years.

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A Particular of My Lords Estate in plain Rents, as it was partly surveighed in the Year 1641, and partly is let at this present.

                                                         Nottingham-shire.

THE Mannor of Welbeck …………………….600l…..0s…..0d

The Mannor of Norton, Carbar-

ton, and the Granges…………………………..454….19s…..1d

Worksopp ………………………………………51…..6s…..8d

The Mannor-house of Soakholm……………..308…..10s….3d

The Manor of Clipston & Edwin-

stow ………………………………………….334l…..9s…..8d

Drayton ………………………………………..8l..16s…..6d

Dunham ………………………………………99l….17s….8d

Sutton ………………………………………...185l….0s….5d

The Mannor of Kirby, &c…………………1075l……7s….2d

The Mannor of Cotham…………………….833l…..18s….8d

The Mannor of Sitthorp…………………….704l……1s….0d

Carcholston…………………………………450l……3s….0d

Hauksworth, &c……………………………139l……4s…..2d

Flawborough……………………………….512l…..11s…..8d

Mearing and Holm-Meadow……………….471l……2s….0d

         6229        7       11

Lincoln-shire.

Wellinger and Ingham Meales…………….100l…….0s…..0d

 

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Derby-shire

The Barrony of Bolsover and Woodthorp …..846…..8s……11d

The Mannor of Chesterfield…………………378l…..0s…….0d

The Mannor of Barlow………………………796l….17s…….6d

Tissington …………………………………..159l….11s…….0d

Dronfield ……………………………………486l….15s……10d

The Mannor of Brampton……………..…….142l…...4s……..8d

Little-Longston……………………………….87l……2s…….0d

The Mannor of Stoak………………………..212l……3s……..0d

Birth-Hall, and Peak-Forrest……………….131l…….8s…….0d

The Mannor of Gringlow…………………..156l……8s……..0d

The Mannor of Hucklow……………………162l….10s…….8d

The Mannor of Blackwall………………….306l……0s…….4d

Buxton and Tids-Hall………………………153l….2s……..0d

Mansfield-Park……………………………..100l….0s……..0d

Mappleton and Thorp……………………….207l…5s…….0d

The Mannor of Wlndly-Hill………………..238….18s……0d

The Mannor of Litchurch and Markworth …713l…..14s…..1d

Church and Meynel Langly Mannor ……….350…….1s…...0d

                                                                      6128l…..11s…..10d

Stafford-shire.

The Mannor of Bloar with Caulton ………………….573l…..13s…..4d

The Mannor of Grindon, Cauldon, with Waterfull…..822l……3s…..0d

The Mannor of Cheadle with Kinsly…………………259l…..18s….0d

The Mannor of Barleston, &c………………………..964l….3s….0d

                                                                                    2349l…..17s…4d

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Glocester-shire.

The Manor of Tormorton with Litleton……………1193l….16s……0d

The Mannor of Acton Turvil ………………………..388l…..3s……2d

                                                                                    1581l…19s…..2d

Summerset-shire.

The Mannor of Chewstoak…………………………..816l….15s…..6d

Knighton Sutton……………………………………..300l….14……4d

Stroud and Kingsham-Park………………………….186l….4s……0d

                                                                                    1303l..13s….10d

York-shire.

The Manors of Slingsby, Hoverngham and Friton,

Northinges and Pomfret……………………………1700l….0s….1d

Northumberland.

The Barrony of Bothal, Ogle and Hepple, &c…….3000l….0s…..0d

Totall                                                                22393l…..10s…..1d

That this Particular of My Lords Estate was no less then is mentioned, may partly appear by the rate, as it was surveighed, and sold by the Rebellious Parliament; for they raised, towards the later end of their power, which was in the year 1652, out of my Lord’s Estate, the summe of 1115931. 10S. 11d. at five years and a half Purchase, which was at above the rate of 18000l. a year, besides Woods; and his Brother Sir Charles Cavendish’s Estate, which Estate was 2000l.

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a year, which falls not much short of the mentioned account; and certainly, had they not sold such Lands at easie rates, few would have bought them, by reason the Purchasers were uncertain how long they should enjoy their purchase: Besides, Under-Officers do not usually refuse Bribes; and it is well known that the Surveighers did under-rate Estates according as they were feed by the Purchasers.

Again, many of the Estates of banished Persons were given to Soldiers for the payment of their Arrears, who again sold them to others which would buy them at easier rat But chiefly, it appears by the rate my Lords Estate is let at present, there being several of the mentioned Lands that are let at a higher rate now then they were surveighed; nor are they all valued in the mentioned particular according to the surveigh, but many of them which were not surveighed, are accounted according to the rate they are let at at this present.

The Loss of my Lords Estate, in plain Rents, as also upon ordinary Use, and Use upon Use, is as followeth:

The Annual Rent of My Lords Lands, viz. 22393l. sos. id. being lost for the space of 18 years, which was the time of his acting in the Wars, and of his Banishment, without any benefit to him, reckoned without any Interest, amounts to 4030831. But being accounted with the ordinary Use at Six in the Hundred, and Use upon Use for the mentioned space of 18 Years, it amounts to 7335791.

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But some perhaps will say, That if My Lord had enjoyed his Estate, he would have spent it, at least so much as to maintain himself according to his degree and quality.

I answer; That it is very improbable My Lord should have spent all his Estate, if he had enjoyed it he being a man of great Wisdom and Prudence, knowing well how to spend, and how to manage; for though he lived nobly before the time of the Wars, yet not beyond the Compass of his Estate; nay, so far he would have been from spend ing his Estate, that no doubt but he would have increast it to a vast value, as he did before the Wars; where notwithstanding his Hospitality and noble House-keeping, his charges of Building came to about 3 wool; the portion of his second Daughter, which was 120001; the noble entertainments he gave King Charles the First, one whereof came to almost i another to above 40001, and a third to 17001. as hereafter shall be mentioned; and his great expences during the time of his being Governour to his Majesty that now is, he yet encreased his Estate to the value of 100000l. which is 5000 per annum, when it was by so much less.

But if any one will reckon the charges of his House-keeping during the time of his Exile, and when he had not the enjoyment of his Estate, he may substract the sum accounted for the payment of his debts, contracted in the time of his Banishment, which went to the maintenance of himself and his Family; or in lieu thereof, con-

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sidering that I do not account all My Lords losses, but onely those that are certainly known, he may compare it with the loss of his personal Estate, whereof I shall make some mention anon, and he’ll find that I do not heighten my Lords Losses, but rather diminish them; for surely the losses of his personal Estate, and those I account not, will counterballance the charges of his House-keeping, if not exceed them.

Again, others will say, That there was much Land sold in the time of My Lords Banishment by his Sons, and Feoffees in Trust.

I answer, First, That whatsoever was sold, was first bought of the Rebellious Power:

Next, although they sold some Lands, yet My Lord knew nothing of it, neither did he receive a penny worth for himself, neither of what they purchased, nor sold, all the time of his Banishment till his return.

And thus much of the loss of My Lords Estate in Rents: Concerning the loss of his Parks and Woods, as much as is generally known, (for I do not reckon particular Trees cut down in several of his Woods yet standing) ‘tis as follows

1. Clipston-Park and Woods cut down to the value of 20000 1.

2. Kirkby Woods for which my Lord was formerly proferr’d 10000 1.

3 Woods cut down in Derbyshire 8000 1.

4. Red-lodg-Wood, Rome-wood and others near Welbeck 40001.

5. Woods cut down in Stafford-shire 1000 l.

6. Woods cut down in York-shire 1000 1.

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7. Woods cut down in Northumberland 15001.

The Total 45000 1.

The Lands which My Lord hath lost in present posession are 2015 1. er annum, which at 20 years purchase come to 40300 1. and those which he hath lost in Reversion, are 3214 1. per annum, which at i6 years purchase amount to the value of 51424 1.

The Lands which my Lord since his return has sold for the payment of some of his debts, occasioned by the Wars (for I do not reckon those he sold to buy others) come to the value of 56000 1. to which out of his yearly revenue he has added 10000 1. more, which is in all 66000 1.

Lastly, The Composition of his Brothers Estate was 5000 1. and the loss of it for eight years comes to 16000 1.

All which, if summ’d up together, amounts to 941303 1.

These are the accountable losses, which My Dear Lord and Husband has suffered by the late Civil Wars, and his Loyalty to his King and Country. Concerning the loss of his personal Estate, since (as I often mentioned) it cannot be exactly known; I shall not endeavour to set down the Particulars thereof, onely in General give you a Note of what partly they are:

1. The pulling down of several of his dwelling or Mannor-houses.

2. The disfurnishing of them, of which the Furniture at Bolsover and Welbeck was very noble and rich: Out of his London house at Clarken-well, there were taken,

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amongst other Goods, suits of Linnen, viz. Table-Cloths, Sideboard-cloths, Napkins, &c. whereof one suit cost 160 1. they being bought for an Entertainment which My Lord made for Their Majesties, King Charles the First, and the Queen, at Bolsover-Castle And of 150 Suits of Hangings of all sorts in all his Houses, there were not above 10 or 12 saved.

Of Silver-plate, My Lord had so much as came to the value of 3800 1. besides several Curiosities of Cabinets, Cups, and other things, which after My Lord was gone out of England, were taken out of his Mannor house, Welbeck, by a Garison of the Kings Party that lay therein, whereof he recovered onely 1100 1. which Money was sent him beyond the Seas, the rest was lost.

As for Pewter, Brass, Bedding, Linnen, and other Houshold-stuff, there was nothing else left but some few old Feather-beds, and those all spoiled, and fit for no use.

3. My Lord’s Stock of Corn, Cattel, &c. was very great before the Warrs, by reason of the largeness and capacity of those grounds, and the great number of Granges he kept for his own use; as for example, Barlow, Carhholslon, Gleadthorp, Welbecle, and several more, which were all well manured and stockt. But all this stock was lost, besides his Race of Horses in his Grounds, Grange-Horses, Hackny-Horses, Mannage-Horses, Coach-Horses, and others he kept for his use.

To these Losses I may well and justly join the charges which my Lord hath been put to

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since his return into England, by reason they were caused by the ruines of the said Warrs whereof I reckon,

1. His Law-suits, which have been very chargeable to him, more than advantagious

2. The Stocking, Manuring, Paling, Stubbing, Hedging, &c. of his Grounds and Parks; where it is to be noted, That no advantage or benefit can be made of Grounds, under the space of three years, and of Cattel not under five or six.

3. The repairing and furnishing of some of his Dwelling-Houses.

4. The setting up a Race or Breed of Horses, as he had before the Warrs; for which purpose he hath bought the best Mares he could get for money.

In short, I can reckon 12000 1. laid out barely for the repair of some Ruines, which my Lord could not be without, there being many of them to repair yet; neither is this all that is laid out, but much more which I cannot well remember; nor is there more but one Grange stock’d, amongst several that were kept for furnishing his House with Provisions: As for other Charges and Losses, which My Lord hath sustained since his return, I will not reckon them, because my design is onely to account such losses as were caused by the Wars.

By which, as they have been mentioned, it may easily be concluded, That although My Lord’s Estate was very great before the Wars, yet now it is shrunk into a very narrow compass, that it puts his Prudence and Wisdom to the Proof, to make it serve

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his necessities, he having no other assistance to bear him up; and yet notwithstanding all this, he hath since his return paid both for Himself and his Son, all manner of Taxes, Lones, Levies, Assessments, &c. equally with the rest of His Majesties Subjects, according to that Estate that is left him, which he has been forced to take upon Interest.

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