The Life of the Most Illustrious Prince, William Duke of Newcastle
The Third Book.
Thus having given you a faithful account of all My Lords Actions, both before, in, and after the Civil Warrs, and of his Losses I shall now conclude with some particular heads concerning the description of his owl Person, his Natural Humour, Disposition, Qualities, Vertues; his Pedigree, Habit, Diet, Exercises, &c. together with some other Remarks and Particulars which I thought requisite to be inserted, both to illustrate the former Books, and to render the History of his Life more perfect and compleat.
1 Of his Power.
AFTER His Majesty King Charles the First, had entrusted my Lord with the Power of raising Forces for His Majesties Service, he e that which never any Subject did, nor was (in all probability) able to do; for though many Great and Noble Persons did also raise Forces for His Majesty, yet they were Brigades, rather then well-formed Armies, in comparison to my Lord’s. The reason was, That my Lord, by his Mother, the Daughter of Cuthbert Lord Ogle, being allyed to most of the most ancient Families in Northumberland, and other the Northern
parts, could pretend a greater Interest in them, then a stranger; for they through a natural affection to my Lord as their own Kinsman, would sooner follow him, and under his Conduct sacrifice their Lives for His Majesty’s Service, then any body else, well knowing, That by deserting my Lord, they deserted themselves; and by this means my Lord raised first a Troup of Horse consisting of a hundred and twenty, and a Regiment of Foot; and then an Army of Eight thousand Horse, Foot and Dragoons in those parts; and afterwards upon this ground, at several times, and in several places, so many several Troups, Regiments and Armies, that in all from the first to the last, they amounted to above 100000 men, and those most upon his own Interest, and without any other considerable help or assistance; which was much for a particular Subject, and in such a conjuncture of time ; for since Armies are soonest raised by Covetousness, Fear and Faction; that is to say, upon a constant and settled Pay, upon the Ground of Terrour, and upon the Ground of Rebellion; but very seldom or never upon uncertainty of Pay ; and when it is as hazardous to be of such a Party, as to be in the heat of a Battel; also when there is no other design but honest duty it may easily be conceived that my Lord could have no little love and affection when He raised his Army upon such grounds as could promise them but little advantage at that time.
Amongst the rest of his Army, My Lord
had chosen for his own Regiment of Foot, 3000 of such Valiant, stout and faithful men, (whereof many were bred in the Moorish- grounds of the Northern parts) that they were ready to die at my Lord’s feet, and never gave over, whensoever they were engaged in action, until they had either conquer’d the Enemy, or lost their lives. They were called White-coats, for this following reason: My Lord being resolved to give them new Liveries, and there being not red Cloth enough to be had, took up so much of white as would serve to cloath them, desiring withal, their patience until he had got it dyed; but they impatient of stay, requested my Lord, that he would be pleased to let them have it un-dyed as it was, promising they themselves would die it in the Enemies Blood : Which request my Lord granted them, and from that time they were called White-Coats.
To give you some instances of their Valour and Courage, I must beg leave to repeat some passages mentioned in the first Book. The Enemy having closely besieged the City of York, and made a passage into the Mannor-yard, by springing a Mine under the Wall thereof, was got into the Mannor house with a great number of their Forces; which My Lord perceiving, he immediately went and drew 80 of the said White-coats thither, who with the greatest Courage went close up to the Enemy, and having charged them, fell Pell-mell with the But ends of their Musquets upon them, and with the assistance of the rest that renewed their
Courage by their example, kill’d and took x and by that means saved the Town.
How valiantly they behaved themselves in the last fatal Battel upon Hessom-moor near York, has been also declared heretofore in so much, that although most of the Army were fled, yet they would not stir, until by the Enemies Power they were over come, and most of them slain in rank and file.
Their love and affection to my Lord was such, that it lasted even when he was de prived of all his power, and could do them little good; to which purpose I shall mention this following passage;
My Lord being in Antwerp, received a Visit from a Gentleman, who came out of England, and rendred My Lord thanks for his safe Escape at Sea; My Lord being in amaze, not knowing what the Gentleman meant, he was pleased to acquaint Him, that in his coming over Sea out of England, he was set upon by Pickaroons, who having examined him, and the rest of his Company, at last some asked him, whether he knew the Marquess of Newcastle? To whom he answered, That he knew him very well, and was going over into the same City where my Lord lived. Whereupon they did not onely take nothing from him, but used him with all Civility, and desired him to re member their humble duty to their Lord General, for they were some of his White- Coats that had escaped death; and if my Lord had any service for them, they were ready to assist him upon what Designs
soever, and to obey him in whatsoever he should be pleased to Command them.
This I mention for the Eternal Fame and Memory of those Valiant and Faithful Men. But to return to the Power my Lord had in the late Warrs: As he was the Head of his own Army, and had raised it most upon his own Interest for the Service of His Majesty; so he was never Ordered by His Majesty’s Privy Council, (except that some forces of His were kept by His late Majesty, (which he sent to Him) together with some Arms and Ammunition heretofore mentioned) until His Highness Prince Rupert came from His Majesty, to join with him at the Siege of York. He had moreover the Power of Coyning, Printing, Knighting, &c. which never any Subject had before, when His Soveraign Himself was in the Kingdom; as also the Command of so many Counties, as is mentioned in the First Book, and the Power of placing and displacing what Governours and Commanders he pleased, and of constituting what Garisons he thought fit; of the chief whereof I shall give you this following list.
A Particular of the Principal Garisons, and the Governors of them, constituted by my Lord.
NEWCASTLE upon Tyne, Sir John Marley, Knight.
Tynmouth Castle and Sheilds, Sir Thomas Riddal, Knight.
In the Bishoprick of Durham.
Hartlepool, Lieutenant Colonel Henry Lambton.
Raby-Castle, Sir William Savile, Knight and Baronet.
The City of York, Sir Thomas Glenham Knight and Baronet; and afterwards when he took the Field, the Lord Jo. Bellasyse.
Pomfret -Castle, Colonel Mynn, and after him Sir Jo. Redman.
Sheffield-Castle, Major Beamont.
Wortly-H all, Sir Francis Wortley.
Tick hill-Castle, Maj or Mountney.
Doncaster, Sir Francis Fane, Knight of the Bath, afterwards Governour of Lincoln.
Sandal-Castle, Captain Bonivant.
Ski p/on-Castle, Sir John Mallary, Baronet.
Bolton-Castle, Mr. Scroope.
Hemsley-Castle, Sir Jordan Crosland.
Scarborough-Castle and Town, Sir Hugh Chomley.
Stain ford-Bridg, Colonel Gal breth.
Hallifax, Sir Francis Mackworth.
Tadcaster, Sir Gamaliel Dudley.
Eyrmouth, Maj or Kaughton.
The City of Carlisle, Sir Philip Mus grave, Knight and Baronet.
Cockermouth, Colonel Kirby.
Newark upon Trent, Sir John Henderson, Knight; and afterwards, Sir Richard Byron, Knight, now Lord Byron.
Wyrton-House, Colonel Rowland Hacker.
Welbeck, Colonel Van Peire; and after, Colonel Beeton.
Shelford-House, Col. Philip Stanhop.
The City of Lincoln, first Sir Francis Fane, Knight of the Bath; secondly, Sir Peregrine Bartu.
1. THE Lord General, the now Duke of Newcastle, the Noble Subject of this Book.
2. The Lieutenant General of the Army; first the Earl of Newport, afterwards the Lord Eythin.
3. The General of the Ordnance, Charles Viscount Mansfield.
4. The General of the Horse, George Lord Goring.
5. The Colonel General of the Army, Sir Thomas Glenham.
6. The Major General of the Army, Sir Francis Mackworth.
7. The Lieutenant General of the Horse, First Mr. Charles Cavendish, after him Sir Charles Lucas.
8. Commissary General of Horse, First
Colonel Windham, after him Sir William
Throckmorton, and after him Mr. George
9. Lieutenant General of the Ordnance, Sir William Davenant.
10. Treasurer of the Army, Sir William Carnaby.
11. Advocate-General of the Army, Dr. Liddal.
12. Quarter-Master General of the Army, Mr. Ralph Errington.
13. Providore-General of the Army, Mr. Gervas Nevil, and after Mr. Smith.
14. Scout of the Army, Mr. Hudson.
15. Waggon of the Army, Baptist Johnson.
William Lord Widdrington was President of the Council of War, and Commander in chief of the three Counties of Lincoln, Rutland and Nottingham, and the forces there.
When my Lord marched with his Army to Newcastle against the Scots, then the Lord John Bellassis was constitued Governour of York, and Commander in Chief, or Lieutenant General of York-shire.
As for the rest of the Officers and Commanders of every particular Regiment and Company, they being too numerous, cannot well be remembred, and therefore I shall give you no particular accompt of them.
2. 0f His Misfortunes and obstructions.
ALTHOUGH Nature had favour’d My Lord, and endued him with the best Qualities and Perfections she could inspire into his soul yet Fortune hath ever been such an in veterate Enemy to him, that she invented all the spight and malice against him that lay in her power; and notwithstanding his prudent Counsels and Designs, cast such obstructions in his way, that he seldom proved successful, but where he acted in Person. And since I am not ignorant that this unjust and partial Age is apt to suppress
the worth of meritorious persons, and that many will endeavour to obscure my Lords noble Actions and Fame, by casting unjust aspersions upon him, and laying (either out of ignorance or malice) Fortunes envy to his charge, I have purposed to represent these obstructions which conspired to render his good intentions and endeavours ineffectual, and at last did work his ruine and destruction, in these following particulars.
1. At the time when the Kingdom became so infatuated, as to oppose and pull down their Gracious King and Soveraign, the Treasury was exhausted, and no sufficient means to raise and maintain Armies to reduce His Majesties Rebellious Subjects so that My Lord had little to begin withal but what his own Estate would allow, and his Interest procure him.
2. When his late Majesty, in the beginning of the unhappy Wars, sent My Lord to Hull,
the strongest place in the Kingdom, where
the Magazine of Arms and Ammunition was kept, and he by his prudence had gained it to his Majesties service ; My Lord was left to the mercy of the Parliament, where he had surely suffered for it, (though he acted not without His Majesties Commission) if some of the contrary party had not quitted him, in hopes to gain him on their side.
3. After His Majesty had sent My Lord to Newcastle upon Tyne, to take upon him the Government of that place, and he had raised there, of Friends and Tenants, a troup of Horse and Regiment of Foot, which he ordered to conveigh some Arms and Ammunition to His Majesty, sent by the Queen out of Holland; His Majesty was pleased to keep the same Convoy with him to encrease his own Forces, which although it was but of a small number, yet at that present time it would have been very serviceable to my Lord, he having then but begun to raise Forces.
4. When Her Majesty the now Queen- Mother, after her arrival out of Holland to York, had a purpose to conveigh some Armes to His Majesty, Mv Lord order’d a Party of 1500 to conduct the same, which His Majesty was pleased to keep with him for his own service.
5. After Her Majesty had taken a resolu tion to go from York to Oxford, where the King then was; my Lord for Her safer conduct quitted 7000 men of his Army, with a convenient Train of Artillery, which likewise never returned to my Lord.
6. When the Earl of Montross was going into Scotland, he went to my Lord at Durham,
and desired of him a supply of some Forces for His Majesties service; where my Lord gave him 200 Horse and Dragoons, even at such a time when he stood most in need of a supply himself, and thought every day to encounter the Scottish Army.
7. When my Lord out of the Northern parts went into Lincoln- and Derby-shires with his Army, to order and reduce them to their Allegiance and Duty to His Majesty, and from thence resolved to march into the Associate Counties, (where in all probability he would have made an happy end of the Warr) he was so importuned by those he left behind him, and particularly the Commander in Chief, to return into York-shire, alledging the Enemy grew strong, and would ruine them all, if he came not speedily to succour and assist them; that in honour and duty he could do no otherwise but grant their Requests; when as yet being returned into those parts, he found them secure and safe enough from the Enemies Attempts.
8. My Lord (as heretofore mentioned) had as great private Enemies about His Majesty, as he had publick Enemies in the Field, who used all the endeavour they could to pull him down.
9. There was such Jugling, Treachery, and Falshood in his own Army, and amongst some of his own Officers, that it was impossible for my Lord to be prosperous and successful in his Designs and Undertakings.
10. My Lord’s Army being the chief and greatest Army which His Majesty had, and in which consisted His prime Strength and
Power; the Parliament resolved at last, to join all their Forces with the Army of the Scots, (which when it came out of Scotland, was above Twenty thousand Men) to oppose, and if possible, to ruine it; well knowing, that if they did pull down my Lord, they should be Masters of all the three Kingdoms so that there were Three Armies against One. But although my Lord suffered much by the Negligence (and sometimes Treachery) of his Officers, and was unfortunately called back into York-shire, from his March he designed for the Associate Counties, and was forced to part with a great number of his Forces and Ammunition, as afore mentioned; yet he would hardly have been overcome, and his Army ruined by the Enemy, had he but had some timely supply and assistance at the Siege of York, or that his Counsel had been taken in not fighting the Enemy then, or that the Battel had been differd some two or three dayes longer, until those Forces were arrived which he expected, namely three thousand men out of Northumberland, and Two thousand drawn out of several Garisons. But the chief Misfortune was, That the Enemy fell upon the Kings Forces before they were all put into a Battallia, and took them at their great disadvantage; which caused such a Panick fear amongst them, that most of the Horse of the right Wing of His Majesty’s Forces, betook themselves to their heels; insomuch, that although the left Wing (commanded by the Lord Goring, and my Brother Sir Charles Lucas)
did their best endeavour, and beat back the Enemy three times, and My Lord’s own Regiment of Foot charged them so couragiously, that they never broke, but died most of them in their Ranks and Files; yet the Power of the Enemy being too strong, put them at last to a total rout and confusion. Which unlucky disaster put an end to all future hopes of His Majesties Party; so that my Lord seeing he had nothing left in his Power to do His Majesty any further service in that kind (for had he stayed, he would have been forced to surrender all those Towns and Garisons in those parts, that were yet in His Majesties Devotion, as afterwards it also happen’d) resolved to quit the Kingdom, as formerly is mentioned.
And these are chiefly the obstructions to the good success of my Lord’s Designs in the late Civil Wars; which being rightly considered, will save him blameless from what otherwise would be laid to his charge; for, as according to the old saying, ‘Tis easie jor men to swim, when they are held up the chin So on the other side, it is very dangerous and difficult for them to endeavour it, when they are pulled down by the Heels, and beaten upon their Heads.
3. Of His Loyalty and Sufferings.
I dare boldly and justly say, That there never was, nor is a more Loyal and Faithful Subject then My Lord: Not to mention the Trust he discharged in all those imployments, which either King James, or King
Charles the First, or His now Gracious Master King Charles the Second, were pleased to bestow upon him, which he performed with such care and fidelity, that he never disobeyed their Commands in the least; I will onely note,
1. That he was the First that appear’d in Armes for His Majesty, and engaged Himself and all his Friends he could for His Majesties Service; and though he had but two Sons which were young, and one onely Brother, yet they all were with him in the Wars His two Sons had Commands, but His Brother, though he had no Command, by reason of the weakness of his body, yet he was never from My Lord when he was in action, even to the last ; for he was the last with my Lord in the Field in that fatal Battel upon Hessom-moor, near York and though my Brother, Sir Charles Lucas, desired my Lord to send his Sons away, when the said Battel was fought, yet he would not, saying, His sons should shew their Loyalty and Duty to His Majesty, in venturing their lives, as well as Himself.
2. My Lord was the chief and onely Person, that kept up the Power of His late Majesty; I or when his Army was lost, all the Kings Party was ruined in all three of his Majesties Kingdoms; because in his Army lay the chief strength of all the Royal Forces ; it being the greatest and best formed Army which His Majesty had, and the onely support both of his Majesties Person and Power, and of the hopes of all his Loyal Subjects in all his Dominions.
3. My Lord was i6 Years in Banishment, and hath lost and suffered most of any subject, that suffer’d either by War, or otherways, except those that lost their lives, and even that he valued not, but exposed it to so eminent dangers that nothing but Heavens Decree had ordained to save it.
4. He never minded his own interest more then his Loyaltie and Duty, and upon that account never desired nor received any thing from the Crown to enrich him self, but spent great sums in His Majesties Service; so that after his long banishment and return into England, I observed his ruined Estate was like an Earthquake, and his Debts like Thunderbolts, by which he was in danger of being utterly undone, had not Patience and Prudence, together with Heavens Blessings, saved him from that threatening Ruine.
5. He never repined at his Losses and Sufferings, because he lost and suffered for his King and Countrey; nay, so far was he from that, that I have heard him say, If the same Warrs should happen again, and he was sure to lose both his life, and all he had left him, yet he would most willingly sacrifice it for His Majesties Service.
6. He never connived or conspired with the Enemy, neither directly nor indirectly for though some Person of Quality being sent in the late Wars to him into the North, from His late Majesty, who was then at Oxford, with some Message, did withal in private acquaint him, that some of the
Nobility that were with the King, desired him to side with them against His Majesty, alledging that if His Majesty should become an absolute Conqueror, both himself and the rest of the Nobility would lose all their Rights and Priviledges; yet he was so far from consenting to it, that he returned him this answer, namely, That he entred into actions of War, for no other end, but I or the service of His King and Master, and to keep up His Majesties Rights and Prerogatives, for which he was resolved to venture both his Life, Posterity and Estate; for certainly, said he, the Nobility cannot fall if the King be Victorious, nor can they keep up their Dignities, if the King be Overcome.
This Message was delivered by word of mouth, but none of their names mentioned; so that it is not certainly known whether it was a real truth or not; more probable it was, that they intended to sound my Lord, or to make, if possible, more division; for certainly not all that pretended to be for the King, were His Friends; and I my self remember very well, when I was with Her Majesty, the now Queen-Mother, in Oxford, (although I was too young to perceive their intrigues, yet I was old enough to observe) that there were great Factions both amongst the Courtiers and Soldiers. But my Lords Loyalty was such, that he kept always faithful and true to His Majesty, and could by no means be brought to side with the Rebellious Party, or to juggle and mind his own Interest more then his Majesties
Service; and this was the cause that he had as great private Enemies at Court, as he had publick Enemies in the Field, who sought as much his ruine and destruction privately, and would cast aspersions upon his Loyalty and Duty, as these did publickly oppose him.
In short, that it may appear the better what loyal and faithful services my Lord has done both for His late Majesty King Charles the First, and His now Gracious
Master King Charles the Second, I have
thought fit to subjoin both Their Majesties Commendations which they were pleased to give him, when for his Great and Loyal Services they confer’d upon him the Titles and Dignities of Marquess, and Duke of Newcastle.
A Copy of the Preamble of My Lord’s Patent for Marquess, Englished.
Rex &c. Salutem.
WHEREAS it appears to Us, That William Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne, besides his most Eminent Birth and splendid Alliances, hath equalled all those Titles with which he is adorned by Desert, and hath also wonne them by Virtue, Industry, Prudence, and a stedfast Faith: Whilest with dangers and expences . gathering together Soldiers, Armes, and all other War - like Habiliments and applying them as well in Our Affairs, as most plentifully sending them to Us, (having fore thought of Our Dignity and security) he was ready with Us in all Actions in York-shire,
and governed the Town 0/ Newcastle, and Castle in the mouth of Tyne, at the time 0/that fatal Revolt 0/the People who were got together; and with a Bond of his Friends did opportunely seize that Fort, and settled it a Garison bringing Armes to Us (then Our onely relief :) In which Service so strongly going on, (which was of grand moment to our affairs) We do gratefully remember him still to have stood to Afterwards, having Mustered together a good Army, (Our self being gone else-where) the Rebels now enjoying almost all York-shire, and the chiefest Fortress of all the Country now appearing to have scarce refuge or safety for him against the swelling Rebels, (the whole Country then desiring and praying for his coming, that he might timely relieve them in their desperate condition). And leading his said Army in the midst of Winter, gave the Rebels Battel in his passage, vanquish’d them, and put them to flight, and took from them several Garisons, and places of Refuge, and restored Health to the Subjects, and by his many Victories, Peace and Security to the Countryes Witness those places, made Noble by the death and flight of the Rebels in Lincoln-shire, Gainshorough and Lincoln; in Derby-shire, Chesterfield; but in Yorh-shire, Peirce-bridge, Seacroft, Tankerly, Tadcaster, Sheffield, Rotheram, Yarum, Beverly, Cawood, Selby, Halifax, Leeds, and above all, Bradford; where when the Yorkshire- and Lancashire- Rebels were united, and Battel joined with them; when Our Army as well by the great numbers of the Rebels, as much more the badness of Our ground, was so prest upon,
that the Soldiers now seemed to think of flying; He, their General, with a full Carier, commanding two Troops to follow him, broke into the very rage of the Battel, and with so much violence fell upon the right Wing of those Rebels, That those who were but now certain of Victory, turn’d their backs, and fled from the Conqueror, who by his Wisdom, Virtue and his own Hand, brought death and flight to the Rebels, Victory and Glory to Himself, Plunder to the Soldiery, and 22 great Guns, and many Ensigns to Us. Nor was there before this, wanting to so much Virtue, equal Felicity, for Our most beloved Consort, after a dismal Tempest coming from Holland, being drove ashore at Burlington, and under going a more grievous danger, by the excursions 0/the Rebels, then the tossing and tumbling of the Sea; He having heard of it, speedily goes to Her with his Army, and dutifully receiveth Her, in safety brings her, and with all security conducts her to Us at Oxford. Where as therefore the aforesaid Earl hath raised so many Monuments of His Virtue and Fidelity towards Us, Our Queen, Children, and Our Kingdom; when also he doth at this time establish with safety, and with His Power defend the Northern parts of Our Kingdom against the Rebels; when lastly, nothing more concerns Mankind and Princes, and nothing can be more just, then that he may receive for his Deeds, a Reward suitable to his name, which requires that he who defends the Borders, should be created by Us, Governour or Marquess of the Borderers. Know therefore, &c.