A Copy of the Preamble of My Lord’s Patent for DUKE, Englished.
Rex &c. Salutem.
WHEREAS Our most beloved and faithful Cousin and Counsellor, William Earl and Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne, &c. worthy by his famous Name, Blood and Office, of large Honours, has been eminent in so many, and so great Services performed to Us and Our Father (of ever blessed memory) that his Merits are still producing new effects, We have decreed likewise to add more Honour to his former. And though these his such eminent A ctions, which he hath faithfully and valiantly performed to Us, Our Father, and Our Kingdom, speak loud enough in themselves; yet since the valiant Services of a good Sub ject are always pleasant to remember, We have thought fit to have them in part related for a good Example and Encouragement to Virtue.
The great proofs of his Wisdom and Piety are sufficiently known to Us from Our younger years, and We shall a retain a sense of those good Principles he instilled into Us ; the care of Our Youth which he happily undertook for Our good, he as faithfully and well discharged. Our years growing up amidst bad Times, and the harsh Necessities of Warr, a new Charge and Care of Loyaltie, the Kingdom and Religion call’d him off to make use of his further Diligence and Valour. Rebellion spread abroad, he levied Loyal Forces in great numbers, opposed the Enemy, won so many and so great Victories in the Field, took in so
many Towns, Castles, and Garisons, as well in Our Northern parts, as elsewhere ; and behaved himself with so great Courage and Valour in the defending also what he had got, especially at the Siege of York, which he maintaind against three Potent Armies of Scots and English, closely beleaguering, and with emulation assaulting it for three Months (till Relief was brought) to the wonder and envy of the Enemy; that, if Loyal and Humane Force could have prevailed, he had soon restored Fidelity, Peace and his KING to the Nation, which was then hurrying to Ruine by an unhappy Fate; So that Rebellion getting the upper hand, and no place being left for him to act further vatiantly in, for his King and Countrey, he still retain’d the same Loyalty and Valour in suffering, being an inseparable Follower of Our Exile ; during which sad Catastrophe, his whole Estate was sequestred and sold from him, and his Person a one of the first of those few who were excepted both for Life and Estate (which was offer’d to all others). Besides, his Virtues are accompanied with a Noble Blood, being of a Family by each Stock equally adorn’d and endow’d with great Honours and Riches. For which Reasons We have resolv’d to grace the said Marquess with a new Mark of our Favour, he being every way deserving of it, as one who lov’d vertue equal to his Noble Birth, and possess’d Patrimonies suitable to both, as long as loyalty had any place to skew it self in our Realm; which possessions he so well employ’d, and at last for Us and Our Fathers service lost, till he was with Us restor’d. Know therefore, &c.
4. Of his Prudence and Wisdom.
My Lord’s Prudence and Wisdom hath been sufficiently apparent both in his Publick and Private Actions and Imployments; for he hath such a Natural Inspection, and Judi cious Observation of things, that he sees beforehand what will come to pass, and orders his affairs accordingly. To which pur pose I cannot but mention, that Laud, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, between whom and my Lord, interceded a great and intire Friendship, which he confirmed by a Legacy of a Diamond, to the value of 2001. left to my Lord when he died, which was much for him to bequeath; for though he was a great Statesman, and in favour with his late Majesty, yet he was not covetous to hoard up wealth, but bestowed it rather upon the Publick, repairing the Cathedral of St. Pauls in London, which, had God granted him life, he would certainly have beautified, and rendred as famous and glorious as any in Christendom: This said Arch-Bishop was pleased to tell His late Majesty, that my Lord was one of the Wisest and Prudentest Persons that ever he was acquainted with.
For further proof, I cannot pass by that my Lord told His late Majesty King Charles the First, and Her Majesty the now Queen- Mother, some time before the Wars, That he observed by the humours of the People, the approaching of a Civil War, and that His Majesties Person would be in danger of being deposed, if timely care was not taken to prevent it.
Also when my Lord was at Antwerp, the Marquess of Montross, before he went into Scotland, gave my Lord a Visit, and acquainted him with his intended Journey, asking my Lord whether he was not also going for England? My Lord answer’d, He was ready to do His Majesty what ser vice he could, and would shun no opportunity, where he perceived he could effect something to His Majesties advantage; Nay said he, if His Majesty should be pleased to- Command my single Person to go against. the whole Army of the Enemy, although I was sure to lose my life, yet out of a Loyal Duty to His Majesty, and in Obedience to his Commands, I should never refuse it. But to venture (said he) the life of my Friends, and to betray them in a desperate action, without any probability of doing the least good to His Majesty, would be a very unjust and unconscionable act; for my Friends might perhaps venture with me upon an implicite Faith, that I was so honest as not to engage them without a firm and solid foundation; but I wanting that, as having no Ships, Armes, Ammunition, Provision, Forts, and places of Rendezvous, and what is the chief thing, Money; To what purpose would it be to draw them into so hazardous an Action, but to seek their ruine and destruction, without the least benefit to His Majesty ? Then the Marquess of Montross asked my Lord’s Advice, and what he should do in such a case ? My Lord answer’d, That he knowing best his own Countrey, Power and Strength, and what probability
he had of Forces, and other Necessaries for Warr, when he came into Scotland, could give himself the best advice; but withall told him, That if he had no Provision nor Ammunition, Armes and places of Rendezvous for his men to meet and join, he would likely be forced to hide his head, and suffer for his rash undertaking: Which unlucky Fate did also accordingly befall that worthy Person.
These passages I mention to no other end, but to declare my Lord’s Judgment and Prudence in worldly Affairs; whereof there are so many, that if I should set them all down, it would swell this History to a big Volume. They may in some sort be gather’d from his actions mentioned heretofore, especially the ordering of his affairs in the time tf Wart, with such Conduct, Prudence and Wisdom, that notwithstanding at the beginning of his Undertaking that great Trust and honourable Employment which His late Majesty was pleased to confer upon him, he saw so little appearance of performing his Designs with good success, His Majesty’s Revenues being then much weakened, and the Magazines and publick Purse, in the Enemies Power, besides several other obstructions and hindrances; yet as he under took it chearfully, and out of pure Loyalty and Obedience to His Majesty; so he ordered it so wisely, that so long as he acted by his own Counsels, and was personally present at the execution of his Designs, he was always prosperous in his Success. And although he had so great an Army, as afore
mentioned, yet by his wise and prudent Conduct, there appear’d no visible sign of devastation in any of the Countreys where he marched ; for first, he settled a constant Rule for the Regular levy of money for the convenient Maintenance of the Soldiery. Next, he constituted such Officers of his Army, that most of them were known to be Gentlemen of large and fair Estates, which drew a good part of their private Revenues, to serve and support them in their publick Employments; wherein my Lord did lead them the way by his own good Example.
To which may be added his wisdom in ordering the Government of the Church, for the advancement of the Orthodox Religion, and suppression of Factions; as also in Coyning, Printing, Knighting, and the like, which he used with great discretion and prudence, onely for the Interest of His Majesty, and the benefit of the Kingdom, as formerly has been mentioned.
The Prudent mannage of his private and domestick affairs, appears sufficiently: I. In his Marriage. 2. In the ordering and in creasing his Estate before the Wars, which notwithstanding his Noble Housekeeping and Hospitality, and his Generous Bounty and Charity, he increased to the value of 100000 l. . In the ordering his Affairs in the time of Banishment, where although he received not the least of his own estate, during all the time of his exile, until his return; yet maintained himself handsomely and nobly, according to his Quality, as much as his Condition at that time would permit. 4. In
reducing his torn and ruined Estate after his return, which beyond all probability, himself hath setled and order’d so, that his Posterity will have reason gratefully to remember it.
In short; Although my Lord naturally loves not business, especially those of State, (though he understands them as well as any body) yet what business or affairs he can not avoid, none will do them better then himself. His private affairs he orders with out any noise or trouble, not over-hastily, but wisely Neither is he passionate in act ing of business, but hears patiently, and orders soberly, and pierces into the heart or bottom of a business at the first en counter; but before all things, he considers well before he undertakes a business, whether he be able to go through it or no, for he never ventures upon either publick or private business, beyond his strength.
And here I cannot forbear to mention, that my Noble Lord, when he was in banishment, presumed out of his Duty and Love to his Gracious Master our now Soveraign King Charles the Second, to.wi-ite and send him a little Book, or rather a Letter, wherein he delivered his Opinion concerning the Government of his Dominions, whensoever God should be pleased to restore him to his Throne, together with some other Notes and Observations of Foreign States and Kingdoms; but it being a private offer to His sacred Majesty, I dare not presume to publish it.
5. Of his Blessings.
ALTHOUGH my Lord hath been one of the most Unfortunate Persons of his Rank and Quality, which this later age did produce; yet Heaven hath been so propitious to him, that it bestowed some blessings upon him even in the midst of his Misfortunes, and supported him against Fortunes Malice, which otherwise, as it seems, had designed his total ruine and destruction: Of these Blessings I may name in the first place,
1. The Royal Favours of His Gracious Soveraign’s, and the good esteem they had of his Fidelity and Loyalty; which as it was the chief of his endeavours, so he esteemed it above all the rest. To repeat them particularly would be too tedious, and they are sufficiently apparent out of the precedent History; onely this I may add, that King Charles the First, out of a singular Favour to my Lord, was pleased upon his most humble request, to create several Noble-men; the Names of them, lest I commit an offence, I shall not mention, by reason most men usually pretend such claimes upon the Ground of their own Merit.
2. That God was pleased to bless him with Wealth and Power, to enable him the better for the service of his King and Country.
3. That he made him happy in his Marriage; (for his first Wife was a very kind, loving and Virtuous Lady) and bless’d him with Dutiful and Obedient Children, free from Vices, Noble and Generous both in
their Natures and Actions; who did all that lay in their power to support and relieve my Lord their Father in his Banishment, as before is mentioned.
4. The Kindness and Civility which my Lord received from Strangers, and the Inhabitants of those places, where he lived during the time of his Banishment; for had it not been for them, he would have perished in his extream wants; but it pleased God so to provide for him, that although he wanted an Estate, yet he wanted not Credit; and although he was banished and forsaken by his own Friends and Countrymen, yet he was civilly received and relieved by strangers, until God bless’d him.
Lastly, With a happy return to his Native Country, his dear Children, and his own Estate; which although he found much ruined and broke, yet by his Prudence and Wisdom, hath order’d as well as he could; and I hope, and pray God to add this blessing to all the rest, That he may live long to encrease it for the benefit of his Posterity.
6. Of his Honours and Dignities.
THE Honours, Titles and Dignities which were conferr’d upon my Lord, by King James, King Charles the First, and King Charles the Second, partly as an encouragement for future Service, and a reward for past, are following.
1. He was made Knight of the Bath, when he was but 15 or 16 years of Age, at the Creation of Henry, Prince of Wales, King James’s Eldest Son.
2. King James Created him Viscount Mansfield, and Baron of Bolsover.
3. King Charles the First constituted him Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire, and
4. Lord Warden of the Forrest of Sherwood; as also,
5. Lord Lieutenant of Derby-shire.
6. He chose him Governour to His Son Charles, our now gracious King; and
7. Made him one of his Honourable Privy Council.
8. He constituted him Governour of the Town and County of Newcastle, and General of all His Majesties Forces raised, and to be raised in the Northern parts of England; as also of the several Counties of Nottingham, Lincoln, Rutland, Derby, Stafford, Leicester, Warwick, Northampton, Huntington, Cambridg, Norfolk, Sussex, Essex and Hereford, together with all the Appurtenances belonging to so great a Power, as is formerly de clared.
9. He conferr’d upon him the Honour and Title of Earl of Newcastle, and Baron of Bothal and Hepple.
10. He created him Marquess of Newcastle.
11. His Majesty King CHARLES the Second, was pleased, when my Lord was in banishment, to make him Knight of the most Noble Order of the Garter; And
12. After his Return into England, Chief Justice in Eyre Trent-North.
13. He created him Duke of Newcastle, and Earl of Ogle.
7. Of the Entertainments He made for King
CHARLES the First.
THOUGH my Lord hath alwayes been free and noble in his Entertainments and Feastings, yet he was pleased to shew his great Affection and Duty to his Gracious King, Charles the First, and Her Majesty the Queen, in some particular Entertainments which he made of purpose for them before the late Warrs.
When his Majesty was going into Scotland to be Crowned, he took His way through Nottinghamshjre; and lying at Worksop Mannor, hardly two miles distant from Welbeck, where my Lord then was, my Lord invited His Majesty thither to a Dinner, which he was graciously pleased to accept of:
This Entertainment cost my Lord between Four and Five thousand pounds; which His Majesty liked so well, that a year after His Return out of Scotland, He was pleased to send my Lord word, That Her Majesty the Queen was resolved to make a Progress into the Northern parts, desiring him to prepare the like Entertainment for Her, as he had formerly done for Him: Which My Lord did, and endeavourd for it with all possible Care and Industry, sparing nothing that might add splendor to that Feast, which both Their Majesties were pleased to honour with their Presence: Ben Johnson he employed in fitting such Scenes and Speeches as he could best devise; and sent for all the Gentry of the Country to come and wait on their Majesties; and in short, did all that
ever he could imagine, to render it Great, and worthy Their Royal Acceptance.
This Entertainment he made at Do Castle in Derbyshire, some five miles distant from We/beck, and resigned We/beck for Their Majesties Lodging; it cost him in all between Fourteen and Fifteen thousand pounds.
Besides these two, there was another small Entertainment which my Lord prepared for His late Majesty, in his own Park at Welbeek, when His Majesty came down, with his two Nephews, the now Prince Elector Palatine, and His Brother Prince Rupert, into the Forrest of Sherwood; which cost him Fifteen hundred pounds.
And this I mention not out of a vain-glory, but to declare the great love and Duty, my Lord had for His Gracious King and Queen, and to correct the mistakes committed by some Historians, who not being rightly in formed of those Entertainments, make the World believe Falshood for Truth. But as I said, they were made before the Warrs, when my Lord had the possession of a great Estate; and wanted nothing to express his Love and Duty to his Soveraign in that manner; whereas now he should be much to seek to do the like, his Estate being so much ruined by the late Civil Wars, that neither himself nor his Posterity will be able so soon to recover it.
8. His Education.
His Education was according to his Birth ; for as he was born a Gentleman, so he was
bred like a Gentleman. To School-Learning he never shew’d a great inclination; for though he was sent to the University, and was a Student of St. John’s Colledg in Cambridg, and had his Tutors to instruct him; yet they could not perswade him to read or study much, he taking more delight in sports, then in learning; so that his Father being a wise man, and seeing that his Son had a good natural Wit, and was of a very good Disposition, sufier’d him to follow his own Genius; whereas his other Son Charles, in whom he found a greater love and inclination to Learning, he encouraged as much that way, as possibly he could.
One time it hapned that a young Gentle man, one of my Lord’s Relations, had bought some Land, at the same time when my Lord had bought a Singing-Boy for 50 1. a Horse for 50 1. and a Dog for 2 1. which humour his Father Sir Charles liked so well, that he was pleased to say, That if he should find his Son to be so covetous, that he would buy Land before he was zo years of Age, he would disinherit him. But above all the rest, my Lord had a great inclination to the Art of Horsemanship and Weapons, in which later, his Father Sir Charles, being a most ingenuous and unparallell’d Master of that Age, was his onely Tutor, and kept him also several Masters in the Art of Horsemanship, and sent him to the Mewse to Mons. Antoine, who was then accounted the best Master in that Art. But my Lord’s delight in those Heroick Exercises was such, that he soon became Master thereof Himself, which en-
creased much his Father’s hopes of his future perfections, who being himself a person of a Noble and Heroick nature, was extreamly well pleased to observe his Son take delight in such Arts and Exercises as were proper and fit for a person of Quality.
9. His Natural Wit and Understanding.
ALTHOUGH my Lord has not so much of Scholarship and Learning as his Brother Sir Charles Cavendish had, yet he hath an excellent Natural Wit and Judgment, and dives into the bottom of every thing; as it is evidently apparent in the fore-mentioned Art of Horsemanship and Weapons, which by his own ingenuity he has reformed and brought to such perfection, as never any one has done heretofore: And though he is no Mathematician by Art, yet he hath a very good Mathematical brain, to demonstrate Truth by natural reason, and is both a good Natural and Moral Philosopher, not by reading Philosophical Books, but by his own Natural Understanding and Observation, bywhich he hath found out many Truths. To pass by several other instances, I’le but mention, that when my Lord was at Paris, in his Exile, it happen’d one time, that he discoursing with some of his Friends, amongst whom was also that Learned Philosopher Hobbes, they began amongst the rest, to argue upon this subject, namely, Whether it were possible to make Man by Art fly as Birds do; and when some of the Company had delivered their Opinion, viz. That they thought it probable to be done by the help of Artificial
Wings: My Lord declared, that he deemed it altogether impossible, and demonstrated it by this following Reason: Man’s Armes, said he, are not set on his shoulders in the same manner as Bird’s wings are; for that part of the Arm which joins to the Shoulder, is in Man placed inward, as towards the breast, but in Birds outward, as toward the back; which difference and contrary position or shape, hinders that man cannot have the same flying-action with his Armes, as Birds have with their Wings; Which Argument Mr. Hobbes liked so well, that he was pleased to make use of it in one of his Books called Leviathan, if I remember well.
Some other time they falling into a Discourse concerning Witches, Mr. Hobbes said, That though he could not rationally believe there were Witches, yet he could not be fully satisfied to believe there were none, by reason they would themselves confess it, if strictly examined.
To which my Lord answer’d, That though for his part he cared not whether there were Witches or no; yet his Opinion was, That the Confession of Witches, and their suffering for it, proceeded from an Erroneous Belief, viz. That they had made a Contract with the Devil to serve him for such Rewards as were in his Power to give them; and that it was their Religion to worship and adore him; in which Religion they had such a firm and constant belief, that if any thing came to pass according to their desire, they believed the Devil had heard their prayers, and granted their requests, for which they gave him
thanks; but if things fell out contrary to their prayers and desires, then they were troubled at it, fearing they had offended him, or not served him as they ought, and asked him forgiveness for their offences. Also (said my Lord) they imagine that their Dreams are real exterior actions; for example, if they dream they flye in the Air, or out of the Chimney top, or that they are turned into several shapes, they believe no otherwise, but that it is really so: And this wicked Opinion makes them industrious to perform such Ceremonies to the Devil, that they adore and worship him as their God, and chuse to live and dye for him.
Thus my Lord declared himself concerning Witches, which Mr. Hobbes was also pleased to insert in his fore-mentioned Book: But yet my Lord doth not count this Opinion of his so universal, as if there were none but imaginary Witches; for he doth not speak but of such a sort of Witches as make it their Religion to worship the Devil in the manner aforesaid. Nor doth he think it a Crime to entertain what Opinion seems most probable to him, in things indifferent; for in such cases men may discourse and argue as they please, to exercise their Wit, and may change and alter their Opinions upon more probable Grounds and Reasons; whereas in Fundamental matters both of Church and State, he is so strict an Adherent to them, that he will never maintain or defend such Opinions which are in the least prejudicial to either.
One proof more I’le add to confirm his Natural Understanding and Judgment, which
was upon some Discourse I held with him one time, concerning that famous Chymist Van Helmont, who in his Writings is very invective against the School-men, and amongst the rest, accuses them for taking the Radical moisture for the fat of Animal Bodies. Whereupon my Lord answer’d, That surely the School-men were too wise to commit such an Error; for, said he, the Radical moisture is not the fat or tallow of an Animal, but an Oily and Balsamous Sub stance; for the fat and tallow, as also the watery parts, are cold; whereas the Oily and Balsamous parts, have at all times a lively heat; which makes that those Creatures which have much of that Oyle or Balsom, are long-liv’d, and appear young; and not onely Animals, but also Vegetables, which have much of that Oyle or Balsom, as Ivy, Bayes, Laurel, Holly, and the like, live long, and appear fresh and green, not onely in Winter, but when they are old. Then I ask’d my Lord’s Opinion concerning the Radical heat: To which he answer’d, That the Radical heat lived in the Radical moisture; and when the one decayed, the other decayed also; and then was produced either an unnatural heat, which caused an un natural dryness or an unnatural moisture, which caused Dropsies, and these, an unnatural coldness.
Lastly; His Natural Wit appears by his delight in Poetry; for I may justly call him the best Lyrick and Dramatick Poet of this Age: His Comedies do sufficiently shew his great Observation and Judgment, for they
are composed of these three Ingredients, viz. Wit, Humour and Satyre; and his chief Design in them, is to divulge and laugh at the follies of Mankind; to persecute Vice, and to encourage Virtue.
10. Of his Natural Humour and Disposition. M Lord may justly be compared to Titus the Delicae of Mankind, by reason of his sweet, gentle and obliging Nature; for though his Wisdom and Experience found it impossible to please all men, because of their different humours and dispositions; yet his Nature is such, that he will be sorry when he seeth that men are displeased with him out of their own ill Natures, without any cause; for he loves all that are his Friends, and hates none that are his Enemies: He is a Loyal Subject, a kind Husband, a Loving Father, a Generous Master, and a Constant Friend.
His natural Love to his Parents has been so great, that I have heard him say, he would most willingly, and without the lest repining, have begg’d for his daily relief, so God would but have let his Parents live.
He is true and just both in his words and actions, and has no mean or petty Designs, but they are all just and honest.
He condemns not upon Report, but upon Proof; nor judges by Words, but Actions; he forgets not past Service, for present Advantage; but gives a present Reward to a present Desert.
He hath a great Power over his Passions, and hath had the greatest tryals thereof; forcertainly He must of necessity have a great
share of Patience, that can forgive so many false, treacherous, malicious and ungrateful Persons as he hath done; but he is so wise, that his Passion never out-runs his Patience, nor his Extravagancies his Prudence; and although his Private Enemies have been numerous, yet I verily believe, there is never a subject more generally beloved then He is.
He hates Pride and loves Humility; is civil to Strangers, kind to his Acquaintance, and respectful to all persons, according to their Quality He never regards Place, except it be for Ceremony To the meanest person he’ll put off his Hat, and suffer every body to speak to him.
He never refuses any Petition, but accepts them; and being informed of the business, will give a just, and as much as lies in him, a favourable answer to the Petitioning Party.
He easily Pardons, and bountifully Re wards; and always praises particular mens Virtues, but covers their Faults with silence.
He is full of Charity and Compasswn to persons that are in misery, and full of Clemency and Mercy; in so much, that when he was General of a great Army, he would never sit in Council himself upon Causes of Life and Death, but granted Pardon to many Delinquents that were condemned by his Council of War ; so that some were forced to Petition him not to do it, by reason it was an ill president for others. To which my Lord merrily answer’d, That if they did hang all, they would leave him none to fight.
His Courage he always shew’d in Action
more then in Words, for he would Fight, but not Rant.
He is not Vain-glorious to heighten or brag of his Heroick Actions Witness that great Victory upon Atherton-moor, after which he would not suffer his Trumpets to sound, but came quietly and silently into the City of York, for which he would certainly have been blamed by those that make a great noise upon small causes; and love to be applauded, though their actions little deserve it.
His noble Bounty and Generosity is so manifest to all the World, that I should light a Candle to the Sun, if I should strive to illustrate it ; for he has no self-designs or self- interest, but will rather wrong and injure himself then others. To give you but one proof of this noble Vertue, it is known, that where he hath a legal right to Felons Goods, as he hath in a great part of his Estate, yet he never took or exacted more then some inconsiderable share for acknowledgment of his Right; saying, That he was resolved never to grow rich by other mens misfortunes.
In short, I know him not addicted to any manner of Vice, except that he has been a great lover and admirer of the Female Sex; which whether it be so great a crime as to condemn him for it; I’le leave to the judgment of young Gallants and beautiful Ladies.
11. His outward Shape and Behaviour. H Shape is neat, and exactly proportioned; his Stature of a middle size, and his Complexion sanguine.