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Private Soldier Elton. P176

Avoid quarrelling, mutinies, swearing, cursing, or lying, and to be content with his wages and likewise to be a good husband in the well managing of his means, keeping himself neat and handsome in his apparel, avoiding drunkenness and all manner of gaming, truly to serve and fear God and to be obedient unto all the commands of his superiors, cheerfully going on all duties and to be loving, kind, courteous unto all his fellows


Company Clerk Elton. P177

His carriage ought to be very just and honest. His chiefest duty is to keep the muster roll and to have it ready upon all occasions for the entering his men upon the muster roll and pay bill. He is many times entrusted to receive the service money of the Company and pays such moneys unto the soldiers as shall be ordered him from his captain to pay. He must inquire out in their quarters where they lie and duly for to pay them and every pay day to deliver up a true bill, giving an account unto his Captain of all such monies he hath either received or paid forth

Drum Major Elton. P177

Being skilful in his profession, instructing others in the true beating of a march, with all other points of war. A drum Major must likewise be well skilled in several languages and tongues, and to be wise and courteous when he shall be employed or sent to an enemy. He is in a discreet manner upon the marching of a regiment to order part of the drums where they shall beat, seeing them timely and duly relived by the others for the better performance of their service


Drummers Elton. P178

Knows how to beat all the several points of war before mentioned. ….A good linguist, I respect sometimes he may be sent unto an enemy for the ransoming of prisoners. His duty is coming to the camp or garrison having his general pass in his hat to beat a call, till he is fetched in. Because he shall not discover the weakness of guards, works or trenches, he is led blindfold and so carried to the commander and place where his prisoners are. With whom …. He is to return to his own quarters, giving account of such things he hath seen or heard, which may prove advantageous to his own party, or of any other thing he had opportunity by their neglect to take notice of.


Gentleman of arms Elton. P178

His duty is to see that the soldiers keep their armes neat and clean and that they be well fixed and that if anything be amiss or broken, he is to have them carried to the Armourers to be repaired. If any soldier shall be sick, dead or have leave to return to his own country, he is to bring his armes to his own lodging, there preserving and keeping then clean, until he shall have occasion to deliver them to some other newly entertained. He is likewise to mark and figure the armes of the company and to preserve and keep a list what figure each soldier shall bear upon his armes. He is likewise to keep the powder bullet and match and deliver it forth upon occasions to the Corporal or Lapassado

Lapassado Elton. P178

His duty is concerned in the absence of his corporal to officiate in all things belonging unto his place and is at all times to be an assistant unto him, for his ease and help mate upon all occasions, for the better managing of his place and many times they are rounders and sentinel perdues in time of great necessity


Corporal Elton. P178

The corporals of a company are not tied to a set number, but to be ordered according to the several strengths and divisions of the same, for each to take his charge and care of every squadron thereof. And unto each of them there is a Lapassado for an assistant for their rule of dignity. I conceive, it makes not much more matter than to make them the right hand file leader in every division…. The corporal’s duty in his squadron is to teach and instruct them in the use of pike and musket and to have a roll and list in his division or squadron. And when a soldier’s name is crossed out he is to give notice unto his sergeant, and when a new one shall supply his place his care must be to instruct and enable him in the postures of such armes as he shall bear. Being with his squadron upon his guard he is to provide then with wood, coal, candle and light. Having an out guard his care must be to strengthen it. His little Corps due guard and sentinels must be set forth according to the avenues or comings on of the enemy, whereby he prevents their cutting off, or surprise, the negligence whereof proves both dangerous to themselves, and the whole army. Whereof it behoves him to be very careful and vigilant to visit them, after giving them a special charge to be both faithful and careful in the great trust reposed in them. He must likewise keep the word constant in his memory, when the captain of the watch goes the first round, he shall with his sword drawn against his breast give it to him, and receive forth orders from him as he shall command. But afterwards when the round shall come again, he shall cause the rounders or gentleman (with his sword drawn) to give the word to him before they pass. He ought never to go alone, being called forth by the sentinels but have a guard of three or four musketeers along with him selected out of his Corps due Guard. He must advise his sentinels how to demean themselves upon the discovery of an Enemy, either to give alarm or else to give notice without making a noise. If up on his guard he shall either observe or be advertised by his sentinels of the approach of the enemy, then he is have his men in readiness with bullets in their muskets and their match lighted. He secretly coming in, giving intelligence unto his captain or other superior officer whereby they may all be in readiness before the alarm be given. He is likewise to distribute the victual, powder, bullet and match unto his squadron and to taker notice of the best experienced men and to accordingly to employ them upon action upon the watches. He must cause respect to be given to the Corp due Guard and silence to be kept, whether it is about the walls or gates so that the noise may not note hinder the hearing of the advertisement from the sentinels. He is likewise to have an eye to their lives and manners and o take care of the baggage and money of such as are hurt or sick and to be in his own carriage sober, wise and discreet for the avoiding ill example unto others


Sergeant Elton P180

He that is sergeant to a company, ought to be well skilled in the postures and all military motions, whereby in the first place he may endeavour to correct the errors of such who handle not the Armes in a handsome or serviceable way. Secondly that he may be helpful to his captain, or other superior officer. In time of exercise his duty is to draw forth the files according to such depths as appointed unto him by his captain or other superior officer and to order them in drawing up and joining together the soldiers unto such places of honour, as they shall direct him unto. In a single company he leadeth often times a division, but ought not always not always there to march in respect he is concerned to see that the soldiers march even in their rank at their distances of order in file and open order in rank. To which purpose, he ought many times to be upon the flanks and perceiving any soldier out of order, he may cast in his halberd between their ranks to cause him to march even a breast with his left and right hand men. He is likewise either in field or garrison to lead his squadron to their guard and to carry to prison such offenders as his captain or other superior officer shall command to the provost marshal. He is to see that the musketeers in time of skirmishing present all even abreast, with their match all cocked, giving fire all together in good order and to direct them how to fall off and rally again in the rear of their own division. His duty likewise is to fetch ammunition, Powder, Match and all other material for the company. He is moreover every particular evening to attend at the place of parade or at the majors lodging to fetch the word and carry it to his captain, lieutenant, ensign and corporals. Likewise as soon as he is come into his guard, he must direct the corporals where to set out the perdues and sentinels and how to order his watch. He must likewise make frequent rounds and if he find a sentinel asleep in the field, he is to commit him to the hand of justice and thus much concerning the duty of a sergeant


Ensign Elton. P181

An Ensign being a commissioned officer, in the absence of his captain and lieutenant, is commander in chief of the company, and ought to march upon the head of the same, leading them with a half pike. His captain and lieutenant being present, and upon a stand, his colours ought to rest upon his side, being held his right or left, and unfurled. Upon the march his colours ought to be shouldered, taking the corner end of them in his right hand, and to let be them be half flying, the pikes and muskets all conforming onto the same posture. Marching the through a city for the more grace, his colours maybe wholly flying, being advanced and held up by his right hand, or resting up on his right-side. He ought to be a proper man, grave, valiant, and discrete, and to well skilled in the postures of the pike, in respect he lead them, and they expect from his to be taught thereof. He ought to be well skilled in all the lofty figures of the displaying of the colours above the head, and to make us of them according to discretion, and command. Which is not only health full exercise to his body, but also most becoming to him, or any other gentleman, or commander whatsoever, that shall sometimes make us of the same, although condemned through sloth and ignorance, by others, who will take the pains to learn it. An Ensign upon a troop, will lodging the colours, or in time of skirmishing may fold them up, and retreat into the second rank for the securing of his colours. Which he ought to stick by, and not to stir from them at such a time, although he hazard his last drop of blood, or makes them his winding sheet. When the General shall pass by, or any such man of worth, he ought little to vale his colours, inclining the head, or narrow end there of, a little downwards, but not to bow his knee or uncover his head. He may sometimes for his ease or recreation upon the march, request some gentleman of knowing trust of the pikes to carry his colours for him, until such time as he shall come again for to take them. In the absence of his lieutenant, when his captain shall exercise the company, he may stick his colours in the ground, or deliver them to some gentleman of the pikes, and fall down himself in the rear with a half-pike or cane. There to an assistant to his captain in the supplying the lieutenant place, except but his captain should command him to contrary. He ought to have a guard along with him as well to the lodging of his colours, as to any other place. He ought to perform all courteous offices for the soldiers onto his captain, which gain both love and reputation amongst them, they thereby better respecting him, and more courageously following of him.


Lieutenant Elton. P181

He that is a lieutenant to a company ought to a good and able soldier, and well to understand the duty of a captain. In respect that in his absence he is as captain and commander in chief over them. He is like wise to receive all orders, charges, and commissions from his captain, assuming no authority unto himself, but in the absence of his captain, he is to see all such orders he as received truly executed, for the better ease unto him. He is like wise at such times frequently to exercise the company, in all their military motions, skirmishing, and false fires in the pan. He is to hold the sergeant and corporals strictly to their duties, causing them to provide all things necessary, for the company, and to be assistance unto him where he shall see cause. He to teach and instruct the soldiers in the use of their arms, and sometimes for their ease, he may command every file leader to draw forth his file, and to show them their postures. By which means he shall such good service to his captain, that when he shall exercise them himself, he finds them more apter and readier to fulfil his commands. At which the lieutenant ought to be in rear, and to see all things there truly executed according to the captain’s commands. He is in time of danger and great importance to advise with his captain about the welfare about the company, for knowing his captain’s intentions and purposes before hand, he may be the better provided to with stand the furious onset of the enemy. He ought to have ensign, and all other offices of the company, as near him as maybe, there being often times urgent business to make use of them as occasion as require. He must neither cashier or punish any man in presence of his captain, but ought to make him acquainted there with, that he may punish the offender by committing to him either to prison, or cause him to give recompense to the party wronged. To conclude, he ought to know how far his power doth extend either in the presence, or absence of his captain, always to meaning himself so, that he main gain the love of all the whole company, by acting these things amongst them as may be just and honest.


Captain Elton. P182

He that is the captain of a company, ought in respect he leadeth the same, and his chief to appoint unto the offices there several places, which divisions they shall lead, and where they shall march, and according to the number of files to make his decision, answerable there to. By dividing his musketeers as neat as he can, the one half upon the right of the pikes and the other upon the left, for they being the flankers ought equally to be balanced, but if there is an odd file, it ought to be contrived and carried the right. In the van, battle, or rear he must according to the number of his men, order his officers places, and draw them off accordingly in as an equal as the will have formed. He is as well as his own, to know all the several duties of his officers, and to be a good posture man himself, that when he sees any of his soldiers handling their arms in an indecent and slovenly manner, he may the better reprove them the same. Although many captain regardeth them not, but leaveth them to be instructed by the inferior offices, yet it is a great deal of honour to him, when his soldiers shall be taught be himself, they more cheerfully, and confidently marching along with him. When as their perceive that he his thoroughly knowing in all things belonging to his charge. He shall do well to exercise his company sometimes himself, teaching them how to fight upon all occasions, whether it is to front, rear, or flanks, or upon surprise on a ambush, or any other disadvantage which may befall them. Informing them how to fall off and rally again in good order. And at such times he must courageously and wisely behave himself and encourage his soldiers of hopes of victory, casting off all the appearances of fear and danger, cheerfully animating his soldiers to fall on. Taking care, and making much of them, and not for sake them until such time they may be relieved by others. He his to have a fatherly care of his soldiers, timely providing the maimed, wounded, and sick. Such helps and remedies, as their present condition requires. He must likewise see that there is not want or victual arms or ammunition. He ought not to be covetous, nor keep his soldiers pay, but to see them duly paid, visiting and relieving them according to their several wants and necessaries. His care must be to execute justice, appease quarrels, punish offenders by doing whereof; he will maintain the honour and dignity of his place. He ought to carry a very even hand over his soldiers, and to be very courteous and kind onto them, yet with that restriction of familiarity that he comes not under contempt. And again, he must not be to ridged, and harsh, caning or beating them, without just cause, lest be he incur their hatred, who secretly, or in time of battle will seek to be revenged of him, endeavouring to kill him before their enemy. Therefore he ought to be wise and discreet, in his commands and courage towards them. His place of marching with his company, his some 6 feet before the first division of musketeers, but if his company be drawn up, he is either upon a stand, or upon the march, to be on the head of the pikes, 6 feet before his ensign. In time of battle although he leads, his men up first against the enemy, yet he is not always tied to being in the front, having just occasion to remove down into the rear, midst, or flanks. Carefully casting his eye upon all parts of the body, there by preventing the least error or neglect of his soldiers, directing them what to do, keeping them in good order as long as occasion shall require. More over he ought to be very religious, temperate, and discreet, faithful in his trust, valiant in the field against the face of his enemy. Being besieged in either town, or fort, (for to preserve his honour), never give his consent for the yielding it up until it be past hope that there is not possibility to hold it out any longer.

Henry Vaughan, 'His book'

Of a Private Soldier

A platforme by how much more founded on a sure foundation is by far so much the more neare to perfection, and therefore he that desires to become a soudlier of assured good quality, to the intent he may be able to pursever in bearing out every brunt stoutly, ought to have a strong Body, sound and of good Complexion, so shall he be able to resist all toyle and travaile, as Colde in Winter, heate in Summer, marching in the Day, keeping Sentinell in the Night, and in his colde Cabbin, in Ambushes, in Trenches, where perchance he may stand many houres in myre and water up to the knees, upon Bulwarkes, Perdues, and such like when occasion requires. Moreover it is necessary that according to the Nature of his Body and inclination of his minde, a Souldier Chuse his Armes whether Musket or Pike, nevertheless respect ought to be had to the proportion of his person, and to take such Armes as agree best with the same, and imploy first his practise in them in which he means to serve; Also he must be very carefull that his furniture be very good and substantiall, as one that loves the safety of his own person, and delights in the beauty of his Armes. A Souldier must above all thinges be obedient to his Captaine, and Officers, and never abandon his Ensigne, not be absent from his company without speciall leave or let. Also these 6 Points ought especially to belong to a Souldier of any quality, viz Silence, Obedience, Secretnes, Sobriety, Hardines, and Truth or Loyalty.

To knit up this Discourse, in briefe hee that findes himself sufficient and well inclined to Exercize this excellent profession, ought with all humility and good intention, frame himself to a perfect Obedience, aswell to observe Order, a thing most convenient in this Excercise, as also to execute that which shalbe Commanded him by his Captaine.

Henry Vaughan.

Corporals of squadrons, and Lancespazadoes.

Look into how many Squadrons you divide your Company, so many Corporals and Lancespazadoes you must have, who are appointed to exercise the Souldier in the use of their Weapons and making cleane their Furniture, so that being chosen out of the better sort, and the best despositions, the rest will be the willinger to obey their directions, and to attend the service: He is to appease the Quarrels betweene man and man, hee is to watch at the Courtes of Guard, and to set out the Sentinels, who must not let the round passe without calling for the Corporall, who taketh the worde of the round, or taketh him to Prison. The Lacespazado is meerly a Souldier, but supplyeth the place of Corporall in his absence, and marcheth next the Corporall in all setings forth, especially in going to Paradoes, and Courtes of Guard.

Henry Vaughan.

Sergeants of the Band.

These Officers must put a difference betweene the Citty Musters or May games, and the terrors of the Ware, For as they are to Trayne men in the time of Garrison, wherby the Soldier may use his weapon, & understand himselfe: so are they to order them in their Files, or ranckes and standings, even when the Bullet flies about their eares, yea to keepe them close from staggering and disrancking themselves, least the enemy espy any advantage by their shrincking, and so set upon them to breake their arrayes and trample them under their Horses feet: He must furnish them with Armour and Munition, and acquaint the Lieutenant if there be default in either: He must assigne to every Souldier his proper place, not suffering them to strive for precedency or superiority: He must attend the Squadrons to the Parados, and Courts of Guard, to bring them to their stands and Watches, yea whether soever they are commanded or appointed: His is to waite upon the Marshall or Sergreant Major for the worde at the setting of the Watch, and acquaint his Lieutenant with the disorders of any deboshed fellow in the Company, or mischiefes and accidents in the Service, that redresse may follow without his Usurpation of a great deale more authority, then he is capeable of.

Henry Vaughan, 'His book'

The Ensigne

This Office amongst the Spaniards is next to the Captaine by the name of Alphero, and so honorable by reason of industrious imployment, that Gentlemen of good Families have deserved the Princes favour by deserving this place in the degrees of a Soldier: He must be well experienced in martiall Discipline, and able to Trayne or Drill up the Company: He must be faithfull and of the trust to his Prince and Captaine, that hee must resolve rather the fame to be his winding sheete and dye, then be dishounored with the losse of his Colours, and in no sort for any corruption betray them to the Enemy, he must be of judgemnent to appease the petty quarrel of his Company, and of authority to correct Offenders, without troubling the Captains for every triviall Brawle of disorder: and he must be able to instruct and encourage the Souldeirs about thim in many Battalie or Skirmish, that they may the more willinger obey, as being subject to so sufficient Comanders.