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Many people ask me where I get my information from. Well I own a lot of books but the library has many more. Here is a good selection below.

a)  Charles's letters exist in many places, the various publications that include them often duplicating each other. Not all the letters have been printed and there is no collected edition of those that have. The original letters are in various manuscript collections including the Clarendon MSS in the Bodleian Library, the Strafford MSS in the Central Library, Sheffield, the MSS of the Duke of Beaufort, the Domestic State Papers in the Public Record Office, and the MSS of the House of Lords. Among important printed sources are:

Cabala sive scrinia sacra , 1654 and later 1787.

Bromley, G., Collection of Original Royal Letters .

Letters to King James the Sixth from the Queen, Prince Henry, Prince Charles (these are fascimiles), Maitland Club, No. 35, 1835.

Halliwell, J. O., Letters of the Kings of England , 1846.

Ellis, H., Original Letters Illustrative of English History : 1st Series, vol. 3; 2nd Series, vol. 3; 3rd Series, vol. 4., 1824-6.

Petrie, C., The Letters, Speeches and Proclamations of King Charles I . This is a small selection, as is a later edition, 1935.

Letters concerning the Spanish Match are in the Hardwicke Papers , vol. I printed from the Harleian MSS; so are letters and documents concerning the Earl of Bristol printed from the State Papers.

Letters, etc. concerning the Isle of Rhé are in the Hardwicke papers , vol. II, printed from the State Papers.

Kensington's (Holland's) proxy courtship letters of Henrietta-Maria are in Cabala .

Charles's own courtship letters to Henrietta-Maria are in the Clarendon MSS and calendared in the Clarendon State Papers .

Letters from Charles to Strafford are in W. Knowler, The Earl of Strafford's Letters and Despatches , 1739.

The correspondence of Charles and Secretary Nicholas in 1641 is in an Appendix to most editions of Evelyn's Diary and Letters .

Charles's letters to James, Duke of Hamilton, are in G. Burnet, Memoirs of the Lives and Actions of James and William, Dukes of Hamilton , 1677.

The correspondence captured by Parliament after Naseby was published in many forms, generally called The King's Cabinet Opened , from 1645 onwards. The original letters are among H/Lords MSS, 6, I.

Charles's letters to Henrietta-Maria from Newcastle in 1646 were published by J. Bruce as Charles I in 1646 , Camden Society, 1856.

Charles's letters to Glamorgan (Worcester) are in MSS Duke of Beaufort, calendered in H.M. Comm. Duke of Beaufort , 12, IX.

Charles's letters to Ormonde are in the Carte Papers .

'Escape' letters of Charles to Firebrace while at Carisbrooke are in an Appendix to P. Barwick, Life of John Barwick , 1724.


b)  Charles's Speeches and Proclamations.

Some will be found in Petrie (above), in the Proceedings of Parliament (below), in Rushworth (below) as well as in separate publications. Important are the

Reliquiae Sacrae Carolinae , 1649.

Bibliotheca Regia 'such of the papers . . . as have escaped the wrack and ruine of these times', 1659.

Charles's disputations with Henderson at Newcastle in 1646 are in the Reliquiae (above) as well as being published separately.

Unlike his father, Charles wrote very little apart from a few odd verses, a paraphrase or two, a few lists and many annotations. His chief period of composition was in captivity and resulted in the Eikon Basilike , published immediately after his execution. The generally accepted view now is that the Eikon was written jointly by Charles and John Gauden, Bishop of Worcester, see

Madan, F. F., A New Bibliography of the Eikon Basilike , 1950.

Roper, H. R. Trevor, History Today , 1951.

Herbert, however, thought that some of the sheets that Charles was handling were not in his own handwriting. It cannot be certain how far Herbert was reliable. But the sentiments of the Eikon so strongly accord with Charles's own, and the style so strongly resembles his, that there can be little doubt that Charles was closely involved. Perhaps his drafts were prepared for the printer by Gauden and the sheets Herbert saw Charles handling were in the nature of 'proofs'. Someone was certainly operating on the practical side to have the machinery of printing and distribution ready to operate immediately after the King's death. See also

The Last Counsel of a Martyred King , 1660.

Heylin, P., The Works of King Charles I . . . with the Life and Reign , 1735.

Chalmers, G., The Poetic Remains of some of the Scottish Kings , 1824 (includes 'Majesty in Misery' said to have been written at Carisbrooke by Charles in 1648 and 'Lines on a Quiet Conscience' from Woty's Poetical Calendar , vol. VIII, also attributed to Charles, though without date).

C—State Papers, Etc.

The official State Papers Domestic cover a vast variety of state and inter-departmental correspondence and instruction, memoranda, reports; they include reports of foreign missions, letters to and from Ambassadors, they record official payments, they include letters and instructions from the King and petitions from ordinary people. They are calendared as Calendar of State Papers Domestic .

The Reports from the Venetian Ambassadors in London to the Doge and Senate at Venice cover the period. A tradition of keen observation, generally accurate, makes them enjoyable and useful reading. They are translated and calendared as Calendar of State Papers Venetian .

Other collections of State Papers include

Rushworth, J., Historical  Collections of Private Passages of State etc., 7 vols, 1659 ff.; later eds. 8 vols, 1680-1701.

Nalson, J., An Impartial Collection of the Great Affairs of State etc., 2 vols, 1682-3.

For Scotland the Letters and State Papers during the Reign of King James the Sixth contain useful material concerning the baby Charles, Abbotsford Club, VI, 1838.

Letters to King James the Sixth contain early letters of Charles and his family as well as the Accounts of the Lords High Treasurers of Scotland published as an Appendix to the Introduction which are useful for Charles's birth and nursery years.

Statutes of the Realm

Besides the official publication there are several abridged editions:

Firth, C. H. and Rait, R. S., Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum 1642-1660 , cover the period when Charles was absent from Westminster, 1911.

Steele, R. R., Bibliotheca Lindesiana (a bibliography of royal Proclamations), 1910.

Rymer, T. and Sanderson, R., Foedera , includes many pronouncements made by the Privy Council during the Personal Rule, 20 vols, 1704-32.

Records of the Privy Council

The Privy Council Registers are officially published in full transcript as

Acts of the Privy Council of England, New Series, 1542-1631 , 46 vols, 1890-1964.

The Registers for 1631-1637 are reproduced photographically on micro-opaque cards, 1962.

The Registers for 1637-1645 are published as slightly reduced facsimiles in codex form, 6 vols, 1967-68.

D—Various Collections

Many news-letters from the State Papers in the Public Record Office have been transcribed by Thomas Birch and edited by R. F. Williams in 4 vols as The Court and Times of James I and The Court and Times of Charles I , 1849.

The Letters of John Chamberlain (many of which are in the State Papers and are included in Birch (above)) were edited in 2 vols by N. E. McClure, 1939.

The despatches of the agent of the Grand Duke of Tuscany are full of interest. They are calendared in Reports of the H.M. Comm. , 11, i (Skrine MSS).

Harleian Miscellany: or a collection of scarce, curious, and entertaining tracts . . . found in the late Earl of Oxford's library , ed. W. Oldys, 8 vols, 1744-6; ed. T. Park, 10 vols., 1808-13.

Somers Tracts . . . selected from . . . public as well as private libraries , 16 vols, 1748-51; ed. W. Scott 13 vols, 1809-15.

Howell, J., Epistolae Ho Elianae , 3 vols, 1645.

Whitelocke, B., Memorials of the English Affairs , 1682 and later.

Harington, J., Nugae Antiquae , 2 vols, 1769.

Nichols, J. (ed.), The Progresses . . . etc. . . . of King James the First (compiled from MSS and pamphlets, 4 vols), 1828.

E—Biographies of Charles

Arnway, J., The Tablet, or Moderation of Charles I, Martyr , 1649.

Wotton, H., A Panegyrick of King Charles , 1649.

Anon., The Life and Reign of King Charles or the Pseudo-Martyr Discovered , 1651.

Gerbier, B.(?), The Non-Such Charles his Character , 1651.

Lilly, W., The True History of King James the First and King Charles the First , 1651.

Weldon, A., The Court and Character of King James, Whereunto is now Added the Court of King Charles Continued unto the Beginning of these Unhappy Times , 1651.

Peyton, E., The Divine Catastrophe of the House of Stuarts , 1652.

L'Estrange, H., The Reign of Charles I , 1655.

Heylin, P., Observations upon the History (i.e. of L'Estrange, above), 1655.

L'Estrange, H., The Observator Observed , 1656.

Sanderson, W., A Compleat History of the Life and Reigne of King Charles From His Cradle to His Grave , 1658.

Van den Bos, L., The Life and Raigne of King Charles , 1658.

Rider, W., new ed. of Arnway (above), 1661.

Perrinchief, R., The Royal Martyr, or the Life and Death of King Charles I , 1676.

Butler, S., The Plagiary Exposed . . . against the Memory of King Charles I , 1691.

Hollingworth, R., The Character of King Charles , 1692.

Hollingworth, R., A Defence of King Charles , 1692.

Perrinchief, R., The Life and Death of King Charles I (similar to Perrinchief, 1676), 1693.

Harris, W., An Historical and Critical Account of the Life and Writings of Charles I , 1758.

D'Israeli, I., Commentaries on the Life and Reign of Charles I , 1828-31.

Abbott, Jacob, History of King Charles the First of England , 1848.

Guizot, F. P. G., History of Charles the First and the English Revolution , 1854.

Chancellor, E. Beresford, The Life of Charles I, 1600-1625 , 1886.

Adams, W. H. D., The White King , 1889.

Seton, W. W., The Early Years of Frederick Henry, Prince of Wales and Charles, Duke of Albany , 1916.

MacKilliam, A. H., Charles the First , 1917.

Coit, C. W., The Royal Martyr , 1924.

Higham, F. M., Charles I , 1932.

Belloc, H., Charles the First , 1933.

John, Evan, King Charles I , 1933.

Brookes, J., A Vindication of Charles I , 1934.

Pakenham, M. P., Charles I , 1936.

Stratford, E. Wingfield, Charles, King of England (3 vols), 1948-50.

French, A., Charles I and the Puritan Upheaval , 1955.

Wedgwood, C. V., The King's Peace, 1637-1641 , 1955.

Wedgwood, C. V., The King's War, 1641-1647 , 1958.

Toynbee, M. R., Charles the First , 1964.

Hibbert, C., Charles I , 1968.

Bowle, J., Charles I , 1975.

Carlton, C., The Personal King , 1983.

Sharpe, K., The Personal Rule of Charles I, 1992

F—Particular Studies of Charles

Williamson, H. Ross, Charles and Cromwell , 1946.

Young, G. M., Charles I and Cromwell , 1950.

Dobson, J., The Children of Charles I , 1975.

Hibberd, C., Charles I and the Popish Plot , 1983.

G—Particular Episodes in Charles's Life: The Sources Given below Are a Few of the Most Useful

1—Birth and Childhood

Chancellor (above) is the only one who deals with the early years in any detail.

Carey, Robert, Earl of Monmouth, Memoirs of the Life of Robert Cary, Baron of Leppington and Earl of Monmouth. Written by himself, and now published from the original manuscript in the custody of John Earl of Corke and Orrery, 1759

Cantrell, Henry, The Royal Martyr, a true Christian , 1716 (for the baptism of Charles).

Keevil, J. J., 'The Illness of Charles, Duke of Albany from 1600-1612', Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences , Vol. IX, No. 4, October, 1954.

Arbuckle, W. F., 'The Gowrie Conspiracy', Scottish Historical Review , 36, pp. 1 ff and 89 ff, 1957.

2—Spanish Marriage

The Hardwick State Papers vol. I are the main repository of the letters from Charles, James, Buckingham, Bristol and contain the answers of Bristol to the charges against him. Also

Wotton, H. The Life and Death of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham , in Reliquiae Wottonianae (reasons for going).

Chamberlain, J. Letters , Vol. II, 480-81 (for the return from Spain).

Journals of the House of Lords , Vol. III, 220-33 for Buckingham's 'Narration'.   Proposed Spanish Marriage Treaty, and the negotiations , Clarendon MSS., Rushworth I, 76 ff; Fray Francisco de Jesus, 'Narrative of the Spanish Marriage Treaty', ed. S. R. Gardiner, Camden Soc. , 1869.

'The Earl of Bristol's Defence of his Negotiations in Spain', Camden Soc. Misc. VI , 1871.

3—Cadiz and La Rochelle

Glanville, J. 'The Voyage to Cadiz in 1625'; Camden Soc, 1883.

Journal of all the Proceedings of the Duke of Buckingham in the Isle of Ree , 1627.

4—Civil War

Manley, T., Iter Carolium , Jan. 1642-1649, 1660.

Walker, E., Historical Discourses , 1705.

Maseres, F. (ed.), Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars in England , 2 vols, 1815.

Parsons, D. (ed.), The Diary of Henry Slingsby (1638-45) , 1836.

Cary, H. (ed.), Memorials of the Great Civil War, 1642-52 , 2 vols. 1842.

Symonds, R., Diary of the Marches of the Royal Army 1644-5 , Camden Soc., 1859.

Peacock, E. (ed.), Army Lists of Roundheads and Cavaliers . . . 1642 , 1874.

Langmead, T. L. (ed.), Sir Edward Lake's account of his Interview with Charles I , Camden Soc., 1858.

Varley, F. J. The Siege of Oxford . . . 1642-1646 , 1935.

Young, P., 'King Charles I's Army in 1642', J. Soc. Army Hist. Research , 17, pp. 102-9, 1938.

Ketton-Cremer, R. W., 'The King's Journey', in A Norfolk Gallery , 1948.

Burne, A. H., The Battlefields of England , 1950.

Burne, A. H. and Young, P., The Great Civil War , 1950.

Woolrych, A. H., Battles of the Civil War , 1961.

Roy, I., 'The Royalist Council of War, 1642-6', B.I.H.R. , XXXV, pp. 150-68, 1962.

Young, P., Edgehill, the Campaign and the Battle , 1967.

Young, P., Marston Moor, the Campaign and the Battle , 1967.

Smith, G. R., Without Touch of Dishonour (Life and death of Slingsby), 1968.

Thomas, P. W. Sir John Berkenhead 1617-1679, a Royalist Career in Politics and Polemics , 1969.

Toynbee, M. and Young, P., Cropredy Bridge 1644, the Campaign and the Battle , 1970.

Young, P. and Emberton, W., The Cavalier Army, its Organization and Everyday Life , 1974.

Smith, G. R. and Toynbee, M., Leaders of the Civil Wars 1642-1648 , 1977.

Malcolm, J. L., 'A King in Search of Soldiers: Charles I in 1942', Hist. J. , 21, 1978.

Young, P., Civil War England , 1981.

Hutton, R., The Royalist War Effort, 1642-1646 , 1982.

5—Captivity

Herbert, T., Threnodia Carolina , being the 1st ed. of Herbert's Memoirs of the last two years of the Reign of . . . King Charles I (other eds 1702, 1813, infra Stevenson, etc.) 1678.

Peck, F. (ed.), Desiderata Curiosa , 2 vols, 1732-5; (contains much material on escape to the Scots), 1779.

Birch, T. (ed.), Letters . . . Hammond . . . relating to King Charles I while he was confined in Carisbrook , 1764.

Ashburnham, J., Narrative . . . of his Attendance on King Charles , 2 vols, 1830.

Berkeley, J., Memoirs (Appendix to above), 1830.

Montreuil, J. de, The Diplomatic Correspondence of 1645-48 , ed. J. G. Fotheringham, 2 vols, Scot. Hist. Soc. (for Charles's escape to the Scots), 1898/9.

Fea, A., Memoirs of the Martyr King, 1646-9 , 1905.

Stevenson, G. S. (ed.), Charles I in Captivity from Contemporary Sources . Contains Herbert's Memoirs , Narratives of Col. Edward Cooke, Major Huntington, Henry Firebrace, 1927.

Firebrace, C. W., Honest Harry, being the biography of Sir Henry Firebrace, Knight, 1619-1691 , 1932.

Mackenzie, N., 'Sir Thomas Herbert of Tintern, a parliamentary royalist', Bull.I.H.R. , 28, pp. 23-86, 1955/56.

Jones, J., The Royal Prisoner (in the Isle of Wight), 1965.

6—Trial and Execution

Nalson, J., A True Copy of the Journal of the High Court of Justice for the Tryal of King Charles I , 1684.

Herbert, T., Memoir of the Last Years of the Reign of King Charles I to which is added a Particular Account of the Funeral of the King , several eds, 1678.

The State Trials , vol. IV, (ed. from contemporary sources by W. Cobbett, T. B. Howell and others) 1809-28.

Halford, H., Essays and Orations , 'An Account of the Opening of the Tomb of King Charles I at Windsor in 1813', 1831.

Muddiman, J. C. (ed.), The Trial of King Charles the First , 1928.

Galwey, R. Payne, The Scaffold George of Charles I , 1908.

Lockyer, R., Trial of Charles I , 1959.

Wedgwood, C. V., The Trial of Charles I , 1964.

The newssheets for end Jan. and beginning Feb., 1649.

H—Particular Topics

1—Ships and the Navy

Heywood, T., A True Description of His Majestie's Royal Ship [the Sovereign of the Seas], 1637.

Oppenheim, M., A History of the Administration of the Royal Navy and of Merchant Shipping in Relation to the Navy from 1509 to 1660 , 1896.

Penn, C. D., The Navy under the Early Stuarts , 1913.

Pett, P., The Autobiography of Phineas Pett , ed. W. G. Perrin, 1918.

Davis, R., The Rise of the English Shipping Industry , 1962.

2—Fishing

Smith, S., A True Narration of the Royall Fishings of Great Britaine and Ireland , 1641.

Smith, S., The Herring-Busse Trade , 1641.

Elder, J. R., The Royal Fishery Companies of the Seventeenth Century , 1912.

3—Sovereignty of the Seas

Selden, J., Mare Clausum (written 1617 or '18, pub. 1635, trans. M. Nedham 1652).

Borough, J., The Sovereignty of the British Seas , 1633, pub. 1651.

4—Ship Money

Gordon, M. D., 'The Collection of Ship Money in the reign of Charles I', Trans.R.H.S. , 3rd S.4, pp. 141-62, 1910.

Keir, D. L., 'The Case of Ship-Money', Law Quart. Rev. , 52, pp. 546-74, 1936.

Bard, N. P., 'The Ship Money Case and William Fiennes, Viscount Saye and Sele', Bull.I.H.R. , 50-51, pp. 177-84, 1977.

Swales, R. J. W., 'The Ship Money Levy of 1628', ibid. , pp. 164-76.

5—Patents and Monopolies

Price, W. H., The English patents of monopoly , 1906.

Rymer, Privy Council (supra , C.)

Leonard, H. H., 'Distraint of Knighthood: the last phase, 1625-41', History , No. 63, pp. 23-7, 1978.

6—The King's Finances

Dietz, F. C., Receipts and Issues of the Exchequer during the Reigns of James I and Charles I (Smith College Studies, Northampton, Mass), 1928.

Dietz, F. C., English Public Finance, 1558-1641 , 1932.

Judges, A. V., 'Philip Burlamachi', Economica 6 , 286 ff., 1926.

Ashton, R., 'The Disbursing Official Under the Early Stuarts: the Cases of Sir William Russell and Philip Burlamachi', Bull.I.H.R. , 30, pp. 162-74, 1957.

Ashton, R., The Crown and the Money Market, 1603-1640 , 1960.

Tawney, R. H., Business and Politics under James I: Lionel Cranfield as Merchant and Minister , 1958.

Prestwich, M., Cranfield, Politics and Profits under the Early Stuarts , 1966.

Alexander, M. Van Cleave, Charles I's Lord Treasurer , 1976.

I—The King and His Court

1—Whitehall and Architecture

Dugdale, G., Whitehall Through the Centuries , 1950.

Charlton, J., The Banqueting House , 1964.

Millar, O., The Whitehall Ceiling , 1958.

Summerson, J., Architecture in Britain 1530-1830 , 1953.

Akrig, G. P., Jacobean Pageant or the Court of King James I , (for Whitehall and the courtier's life), 1962.

Parry, G., The Golden Age Restor'd: The Culture of the Stuart Court, 1603-1643 , 1981.

2—The Court Masque and Order of the Garter

Simpson, P. and Bell C. P., Designs by Inigo Jones for Plays and Masques at Court (Walpole Soc.), 1924.

Steele, M. S., Plays and Masques at the Court during the Reigns of Elizabeth, James, and Charles , 1926.

Welsford, E., The Court Masque , 1927.

Nicoll, A., Stuart Masques and the Renaissance Stage , 1938.

Orgel, S., The Jonsonian Masque , 1965.

Ashmole, E., The Institution, Laws, and Commerce of the Most-Noble Order of the Garter , 1672.

Ashmole, E., A History of the Most Noble Order of the Garter , 1715.

Wilson, T. H., Saint George in Tudor and Stuart England-the development of the Cult of the Order of the Garter , (London M. Phil. thesis), 1976

For both 1 and 2 (above) lives of Inigo Jones, e.g.

Gotch, A., Inigo Jones , 1928.

Summerson, J., Inigo Jones , 1966.

3—Art and the King's Pictures

Waterhouse, E., Painting in Britain 1530-1790 , 1953.

Whinney, M. and Millar, O., English Art 1625-1714 , 1957.

Millar, O., The Queen's Pictures (partic. Pt. 3), 1977.

Hewlett, H. G., 'Charles I as a Picture Collector', in The Nineteenth Century , vol. XXVIII, Aug. 1890.

Phillips, C., The Picture Gallery of Charles I (Portfolio Monograph No. 25), Jan. 1896.

Pickel, M. B., Charles I as Patron of Poetry and Drama , 1936.

Hoff, U., Charles I: Patron of Artists , 1942.

Millar, O., 'Charles I', Burlington Magazine , Vol. XCI, p. 86, 1949.

Roper, H. Trevor-, The Plunder of the Arts in the Seventeenth Century (for Mantuan Collection), 1970.

Sainsbury, W. N., Appendix H (Q.12) for Mantuan Collection.

Van der Doort, A., Catalogue of the Collections of Charles I reproduced with an Introduction by Oliver Millar (Walpole Soc. vol. XXXVII), 1960.

Millar, O., The Age of Charles I: Painting in England 1620-1649 , 1972.

Nuttall, W. L. F., 'King Charles's Pictures and the Commonwealth Sale', Apollo , Oct. 1965.

4—Literature

Knights, L. C., Drama and Society in the Age of Jonson , 1937.

Wedgwood, C. V., Seventeenth-Century English Literature , 1950, 1970.

Wedgwood, C. V., Poetry and Politics Under the Stuarts , 1960.

Stubbs, J., Reprobates, The Cavaliers of the English Civil War, 2011.

5—Portraits of Charles

Cust, L., 'The Equestrian Portraits of Charles I', Burlington Magazine , XVIII, pp. 207 ff. 1910-11.

Mann, J. G., 'The Charles I Statue at Charing Cross', Country Life , pp. 908-9, May 16, 1947.

Toynbee, M. R., 'Some Early Portraits of Charles I', Burlington Magazine , XCI pp. 4-9, 1949.

Esdaile, K. A., 'The Busts and Statues of Charles I', ibid , pp. 4-14, 1949.

Millar, O., Age of Charles I (above).

Strong, R., Charles I on Horseback , 1972.

6—Little Gidding

Mayor, J. E. B. (ed.), Two Lives , 1855.

Carter, T. T. (ed.), Nicholas Ferrar, his Household and his Friends , 1892.

Blackstone, B. (ed.), The Ferrar Papers , 1938.

Haycock, A. L., Nicholas Ferrar of Little Gidding , 1938.

Maycock, A. L., Chronicles of Little Gidding , 1954.

7—The King's Evil; The Occult, etc.

Browne, J., Service used in touching for the King's Evil , 1684.

Crawford, R., The King's Evil , 1911.

Toynbee, M. R. 'Charles I and the King's Evil' in Folklore vol. LXI, March 1950.

Thomas, K. V., Religion and the Decline of Magic , 1971.

J— The King and His Church

1—The Church of England and the Church of Rome
Laud, biography (Q.).

Charles's own letters and speeches, etc. (B).

Gamaches, C. de, Memoirs of the Mission in England of the Capuchin Friars . . . 1630-1669 are printed in vol. II of Birch, Court and Times of Charles I (supra).

Panzani, Con, Rossetti , transcripts of the correspondence are in the P.R.O.

Panzani, G., The Memoirs of Gregorio Panzani, including an account of his Agencies in England 1634-1636 , ed. J. Berington, 1793.

Meyer, A. O., 'Charles I and Rome', Am.Hist.Rev. , 19, pp. 13-26, 1913.

Albion, G. G., Charles I and the Court of Rome , 1938.

Hill, J.E.C. Economic Problems of the Church , 1956.

Havran, M. J., The Catholics in Caroline England , 1962.

Tyacke, N., 'Puritanism, Arminianism and Counter-Revolution' in Origins of the English Civil War , ed. C. Russell, 1973.

Hibbard, C. M., 'Early Stuart Catholicism: Revisions and Re-Revisions', J.M.H. , vol. 52, No. 1, March 1980.

2—Puritanism and Puritan Protest

Laud's speech against Bastwick, Burton, Prynne in 1637 is in Harleian Misc.

Prynne, W., Canterburie's doome , 1646.

Thomason, G., The Thomason Tracts, 1640 - 1661. Collection of pamphlets; British Library.

Heath, Sir Robert, 'Speech . . . in the case of . . . Leighton in the Star Chamber', Camden Soc. Misc. VII, 1875.

'Proceedings against Prynne', Camden Soc. N.S. 18, 1877.

Ball, T. Life of the Renowned Doctor Preston , ed. E. W. Harcourt, 1628.

Newton, A. P., The colonizing Activities of the Early Puritans , 1914.

Kirby, E. W., William Prynne: A Study in Puritanism , 1931.

Haller, W., Tracts on Liberty in the Puritan Revolution , 3 vols, 1934.

Haller, W., The Rise of Puritanism , 1938.

Morgan, I., Prince Charles's Puritan Chaplain , 1957.

Hill, J. E. C., Puritanism and Revolution , 1958.

Hill, J. E. C. (ed.), Brailsford, The Leveller Movement , 1961.

Gregg, P., Free-born John (a biography of Lilburne), 1961.

Lamont, W., Marginal Prynne , 1963.

Hill, J. E. C., Society and Puritanism in pre-Revolutionary England , 1964.

Lamont, W., Godly Rule , 1969.

Kupperman, K. O., Providence Island 1630 - 1641, The Other Puritan Colony, 1993

K—Political Theory

Until recently, theoretical discussion, principles of political obligation, etc. have attracted more attention than either the day-to-day happenings in Parliament or the development of Parliament itself. Thus:

Gardiner, S. R., Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution 1628-1660 , 1889.

Figgis, J. N., The Theory of the Divine Right of Kings , 1896.

Tanner, J. R., English Constitutional Conflicts of the Seventeenth Century, 1603-1689 , 1928.

Gooch, G. P., Political Thought in England from Bacon to Halifax , 1914/15.

Gooch, G. P., English Democratic Ideas in the Seventeenth Century (2nd ed. edited Laski), 1927.

Tanner, J. R., Constitutional Documents of the Reign of James I 1603-1625 , 1930.

Allen, J. W., English Political Thought, 1603-1660 , 2 vols, 1938.

Sabine, G. H., A History of Political Theory , 1937.

Wormuth, F. D., The Royal Prerogative 1603-1649 , 1939.

Judson, M. A., The Crisis of the Constitution , 1949.

Zagorin, P., A History of Political Thought in the English Revolution , 1954.

Kenyon, J. P., The Stuart Constitution , Documents and Commentary, 1966.

Daly, J., 'The Idea of Absolute Monarchy in 17th Century England', H.J. , 21, pp. 227-50, 1978.

L—Parliament

1—General

Journals of the House of Commons


Journals of the House of Lords

These Journals contain some speeches, procedural accounts, attendances, but are scrappy and incomplete.

The Old Parliamentary History , compiled 1751-62.

The Parliamentary History of England , compiled by William Cobbett 1806-20.

Both these Parliamentary histories need supplementing and should be used with caution, but they make good use of contemporary pamphlets, etc. to fill in gaps in the Journals .

Firth, C. H., The House of Lords During the Civil War, 1603-1660 , 1910.

2—Particular Parliaments

Notestein, W., Relf, F. H. and Simpson, H., Commons Debates, 1621 , 1935.

Ruigh, R. E., The Parliament of 1624 , 1971.

Gardiner, S. R., 'Debates in the House of Lords 1624', 1626, Camden Soc., 1879.

Gardiner, S. R., 'Debates in the House of Commons in 1625', Camden Soc., 1873.

Fuller, M. B., Negotium Posterorum and the Parliament of 1625 , 1919.

Ball, J. N., 'Eliot in 1625', Bull.I.H.R. , 28, pp. 103-27, 1955.

Hulme, H., The leadership of Sir John Eliot in the Parliament of 1626 , 1932.

Johnson, R. C., Keeler, M. F., Cole, M. J. and Bidwell, W. B., The Commons' Debates in 1628 , 1977.

Notestein, W. and Relf, F. H., The Commons' Debates for 1629 , 1921.

Fraser, I. H. C., 'The Agitation in the Commons 2nd March 1629', Bull.I.H.R. , 30, pp. 86-95, 1957.

Ball, J. N., 'Sir John Eliot and Parliament, 1624-1629' in Faction and Parliament (nfra ), 1978.

Thompson, C., 'The Divided Leadership of the House of Commons in 1629' in Faction and Parliament (infra ), 1978.

3—The Long Parliament

May, T., The History of the Parliament of England which Began November 3, 1640 , 1647.

D'Ewes, S., The Journal of Sir Simonds D'Ewes, Nov. 1640-March 1641 , ed. Notestein; Oct. 1641-Jan. 1642 , ed. Coates, 1923.

Verney Papers, Notes of Proceedings in the Long Parliament , ed. J. Bruce, Camden Soc., 1845.

Keeler, M. F., The Long Parliament, 1640-41, a biographical study of its Members , 1954.

Brunton, D. and Pennington, D. H., Members of the Long Parliament , 1954.

Hexter, H. H., The Reign of King Pym , 1941.

Brett, S. R., 'The Long Parliament', Quart. Rev. , 275, pp. 107-17, 1940.

MacCormack, J. R., Revolutionary Politics in the Long Parliament , 1973.

4—Particular Topics

Relf, F. H., The Petition of Right , 1917.

Foster, E. R., 'The Printing of the Petition of Right', Huntingdon Liby Quarterly I, pp. 81-3, 1974.

Forster, J., The Debates on the Grand Remonstrance , 1860.

Schoolcraft, H. L., The Genesis of the Grand Remonstrance , 1902.

Coates, W. H., 'Some Observations on the Grand Remonstrance' J.M.H. , 4, pp. 1-17, 1932.

Forester, J., The Arrest of the Five Members by Charles I , 1860.

5—General Discussion (See Also Essay Collections)

Notestein, W., 'The Winning of the Initiative by the House of Commons', Proc. Brit. Acad. 11, pp. 125-75, 1924-5.

Willson, D. H. (ed.), The Parliamentary Diary of Robert Bowyer , 1941.

Hinton, R. M. K., 'The Decline of Parliamentary Government under Elizabeth and the Early Stuarts', C.H.J. , 13, pp. 116-32, 1957.

Mitchell, W. M., The Rise of the Revolutionary Party in the English House of Commons 1603-1629 , 1957.

Johnson, R. C., 'Parliamentary Diaries of the Early Stuart Period', Bull.I.H.R. , 44, pp. 293-300, 1971.

Russell, C., 'Introduction' and 'Parliament and the King's Finances' in The Origins of the English Civil War (infra) , 1973.

Hirst, D., The Representative of the People? , 1975.

Russell, C., 'Parliamentary History in Perspective: 1602-1629', History , 61, pp. 1-27, 1976.

Sharpe, K., 'Parliamentary History 1603-1629: In or out of Perspective?' in Faction and Parliament (infra) , 1978.

Russell, C., Parliaments and English Politics 1621-1629 , 1979. This is the most comprehensive study of early Stuart Parliaments to have appeared. With the work of Hirst and Sharpe it emphasizes both the new approach to Parliamentary history and the importance of day-to-day happenings as opposed to the theoretical approach represented by the works listed under K (above).

Important reviews are:

Underdown, D., Am.Hist.Rev. , 85, Feb. 1980.

Hirst, D., 'Parliament, Law and War in the 1620s' H.J. , 23, 1980.

Woolrych, A., 'Court, Country and City Revisited', History , June 1980.

Hexter, J. H., 'The Not-So-New-Men', New York Review , Dec. 18, 1980.

M—Government

1—At the Centre

Aylmer, G. E., The King's Servants: the Civil Service of Charles I 1625-1642 , 1961, rev. 1974.


2—In the Localities

The emphasis upon Parliament has been matched by an increasing

number of studies of local affairs, which are of crucial importance to an understanding of Charles's reign:

Coate, M., Cornwall in the Great Civil War and Interregnum 1642-1660 , 1933.

Wood, A. C., Nottinghamshire in the Civil War , 1937.

Barnes, T. G., Somerset 1625-40 , 1961.

Chalkin, C. W., Seventeenth-Century Kent , 1965.

Everitt, A., The Community of Kent and the Great Rebellion , 1966.

Morrill, J. S., The Revolt of the Provinces , 1976.

Holmes, C., The Eastern Association in the English Civil War , 1974.

Fletcher, A., A County Community in Peace and War; Sussex 1600-1660 , 1975.

3—Towns

Pearl, V., London and the Outbreak of the Puritan Revolution 1625-42 , 1961.

Howell, R., Newcastle-upon-Tyne and the Puritan Revolution , 1967.

Clark, P. and Slack, P., Crisis and Order in English Towns 1500-1700 , 1972.

N—Scotland

Donaldson, G., The Making of the Scottish Prayer Book of 1637 , 1954.

Wedgwood, C. V., 'Anglo-Scottish Relations, 1603-40', R.H.S. Trans. , 4th S. 32, pp. 1-15, 1960.

Donaldson, G., Scotland: James V-James VII , 1965.

Schwarz, M. L., 'Viscount Saye and Sele, Lord Brooke and aristocratic protest to the First Bishops' War', Canadian J. Hist. , vii, pp. 17-36, 1972.

Stevenson, D., The Scottish Revolution, 1637-44 , 1973.

Kaplan, L., Politics and Religion during the English Revolution: the Scots and the Long Parliament 1643-1645 , 1976.

Fissel, M. C., The Bishops' Wars, Charles I's campaigns against Scotland 1638-1640, 1994.

O—Economic and Social Development

1—General

State Papers Domestic for instructions to and responses from counties to particular situations.

Reports of Cases in Star Chamber and High Commission ed. Gardiner, S. R., Camden Soc., 1886.

Rushworth, Vol. II, part 2 , Reports of Star Chamber cases, 1625-8.

Nef, J. U., 'The Progress of Technology and the Growth of Large Scale Industry in Great Britain 1540-1640', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 5, pp. 3-24, 1934.

Supple, B., Commercial Crisis and Change in England 1600-1642 , 1959.

Barnes, T. G., Somerset 1625-40 (for the Book of Orders and Poor Law Policy), 1961.

Wilson, C., England's Apprenticeship 1603-1763 , 1965.

2—Agrarian Affairs

Darby, H. C., The Draining of the Fens , 1940.

Allan, D. G. C., 'The Rising in the West, 1628-1631', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 5, pp. 136-61, 1952.

Harris, L. E., Vermuyden and the Fens , 1953.

Hammersley, G., 'The Crown Woods and their Exploitation in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries', Bull.I.H.R. , 30, pp. 136-51, 1957.

Hammersley, G., 'Julius Caesar: Memo. on Crown Forest Land', Bull.I.H.R. , 30, pp. 157-8, 1957.

Kerridge, E., 'The Revolt in Wiltshire against Charles I', Wilts. Arch. and Natural History Mag. , LVII, pp. 64-75, 1958.

Beresford, M. W., 'Habitation versus Improvement' in Essays in the Economic and Social History of Tudor and Stuart Times , ed. F. J. Fisher, 1961.

Thirsk, J., The Agrarian History of England and Wales, IV , 1500-1640, 1967.

Kerridge, E., Agrarian Problems, the 16th Century and After , 1969.

3—Wool

Friis, A., Alderman Cockayne's Project and the Cloth Trade , 1927.

Bowden, P. J., The Wool Trade in Tudor and Stuart England , 1962.

Ramsay, G. D., The Wiltshire Woollen Industry in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries , 1943

4—Trade etc.

Ramsay, G. D., English Overseas Trade during the Centuries of Emergence , 1957.

Outhwaite, R. H., Inflation in Tudor and Early Stuart England , 1969.

P—Class and Society

Peacham, H., The Compleat Gentleman , 1622.

Brathwaite, R., The English Gentleman , 1630.

Brathwaite, R., The English Gentlewoman , 1631.

Campbell, M., The English Yeoman under Elizabeth and the Early Stuarts , 1942.



The relation of economic wealth to political stability and in particular the changing fortunes of the gentry and the aristocracy have, since Charles's own time, given rise to fruitful discussion. The most important contributions are:

Harrington, J., Commonwealth of Oceana , 1656.

Tawney, R. H., 'Harrington's Interpretation of his Age', Proceedings of the British Academy , 1941.

Tawney, R. H., 'The Rise of the Gentry 1558-1640', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 11, 1941.

Stone, L., 'The Anatomy of the Elizabethan Aristocracy', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 13, 1948.

Roper, H. R. Trevor-, 'The Elizabethan Aristocracy: An Anatomy Anatomized', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 2nd. S. 3, 1951.

Stone, L., 'The Elizabethan Aristocracy, a restatement', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 2nd S. 4, 1952.

Roper, H. R. Trevor-, 'The Gentry 1540-1640', Econ.Hist.Rev. Supplement , 1, 1953.

Tawney, R. H., 'The Rise of the Gentry, a Postscript', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 2nd. S. 7, 1954.

Cooper, J. P., 'The Counting of Manors', Econ.Hist.Rev. , 2nd S. 8, 1956.

Zagorin, P., 'The Social Interpretation of the English Revolution', J.Econ.Hist. , 19, 1959.

Hexter, J. H., 'Storm Over the Gentry', in Re-appraisals in History , 1961.

Simpson, A., The Wealth of the Gentry 1540-1660 , 1961.

Stone, L., The Crisis of the Aristocracy 1558-1641 , 1965.

Stone, L., Social Change and Revolution in England 1540-1640 , 1965.

Coleman, D. C., 'The Gentry Controversy and the Aristocracy in Crisis', History , 51, 1966.

Zagorin, P., The Court and the Country , 1969.

Christianson, P., 'The Causes of the English Revolution: A Revaluation', J. of British Studies , 15, 1976.

Journal of Modern History , 49, No. 4, a special issue devoted to the English Revolution, Dec. 1977.

Commentaries on the above in ibid. , March 1978.

Pocock, J. G. A. (ed.), The Political Works of James Harrington , 1977.

For information on Lotteries, see

Ashton, J., A History of English Lotteries , 1893.

Ewen, C. L., Lotteries and Sweepstakes , 1932.  

Q—Biographies of People Close to Charles

1a—King James I

Wilson, A., The History of Great Britain, being the Life and Reign of King James the First , 1653.

Osborne, F., Some Traditionall Memoyres on the Raigne of King James the First , 1658

Harris, W., Historical and Critical Account of the Life and Writings of James I , 1753.

Ashton, R. (ed.), James I by his Contemporaries , 1969.

Willson, D. H., King James VI and I , 1973.

Smith, A. G. R. (ed.), The Reign of James VI and I , 1973.

Bingham, C., James VI of Scotland , 1979.

Bingham, C., James I of England , 1981.

The most important of James's own works are:

Daemonologie , 1597.

Basilikon Doron , 1599.

The Trew Law of Free Monarchies , 1603.

A Counterblast of Tobacco , 1604.

A Meditation upon the Lord's Prayer , 1619.

A Meditation upon verses of St. Matthew , 1620.

His Collected Works were published by Bishop Montague in 1616; also ed. C. H. McIlwain in 1918.

b—The Death of James

See Harris (above) and

Eglisham, G., The Forerunner of Revenge , 1642.

Keynes, G., The Life of William Harvey , 1966, pp. 143-8.

2—Queen Anne

Strickland, A., Lives of the Queens of England , 1840-8.

3—Queen Henrietta-Maria

Green, M. A. E., The Letters of Queen Henrietta-Maria , 1857.

Dauncy, J., Henrietta-Maria , 1660.

Strickland, A., Lives of the Queens of England , 1840-8.

Taylor, I. A., Henrietta-Maria , 2 vols, 1905.

Haynes, H., Henrietta-Maria , 1912.

Oman, C., Henrietta-Maria , 1936.

Toynbee, M. R., 'The Wedding Journey of King Charles I', Archaeologia Cantiania , vol. LXIX, 1955.

Bone, Quentin, Queen of the Cavaliers , 1973.

Hamilton, Elizabeth, Henrietta-Maria , 1976.

Smuts, R. M., 'The Puritan followers of Henrietta Maria in the 1630s', E.H.R. , 93, pp. 26-45, Jan. 1978.

4—Prince Henry

Maxwell, J., The Life and Death of Prince Henry , 1612.

Cornwallis, C., A Briefe Life of Henry, Prince of Wales written 1626, pub. 1641.

Cornwallis, C., An Account of the Baptism, Life, Death and Funeral of the most Incomparable Prince Frederick Henry, Prince of Wales , 1751.

Birch, T., The Life of Henry Prince of Wales , 1760.

Wilson, E. C., Prince Henry and English Literature , 1946.

Strong, R. Henry Prince of Wales and England's lost Renaissance, 1986

5—Elizabeth of Bohemia

Baker, L. M., Letters of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia , 1953.

Ward, A. W. (ed. Tout and Rait), Elizabeth, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia , 1902.

Green, M. A. E. (revised S. C. Lomas), Elizabeth Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia , 1909.

Buchan, A., A Stuart Portrait , 1934.

Oman, C. M. A., Elizabeth of Bohemia , 1938, revised 1964.

Williams, J., Elizabeth, the Winter Queen , 1977.

6—George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham

Wotton, H., Reliquiae Wottonianae , 1651.

Fairholt, F. W. (ed.), Poems and Songs relating to . . . Buckingham and his Assassination (Percy Society), 1850.

Gardiner, S. R., 'Documents Illustrating the Impeachment of Buckingham in 1626', Camden Soc., 1889.

Thomson, K., Life and Times of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham , 1860.

Gibbs, P., The Romance of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham , 1905.

Gibb, M. A., Buckingham, 1592-1628 , 1936.

Cammell, C. R., Buckingham , 1939.

Williamson, H. R., George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham , 1940.

Erlanger, P., trans. Smith-Gordon, L., Life of Buckingham , 1953.

Lockyer, R., The life and political career of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham , 1981.

7—Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford

Knowler, W. (ed.), The Earl of Strafford's Letters and Despatches , 2 vols, 1739.

Cooper, J. P., 'The Fortune of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford', Econ.Hist.Rev. , Dec. 1958.

Wedgwood, C. V., Thomas Wentworth, First Earl of Strafford, a Revaluation , 1961.

Cooper, J. P., (ed.), The Wentworth Papers , Camden Soc., 1973.

8—William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury

Scott, W. and Bliss, J., The Works of William Laud , 7 vols, 1847-60.

Roper, H. R. Trevor-, Archbishop Laud, 1573-1645 , 1940 (rev. ed. 1962).

Bourne, E. C. E., The Anglicanism of William Laud , 1947.

9—Richard Weston, Earl of Portland

Alexander, M. Van Cleave, Charles I's Lord Treasurer , 1976.

10—Prince Rupert

Prince Rupert's Diary : notes preserved in the Wiltshire Record Office at Trowbridge.

Warburton, B. E. G., Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers , 3 vols, 1849.

Scott, E., Rupert, Prince Palatine , 1899.

Thomson, G. M., Warrior Prince, Prince Rupert of the Rhine , 1899, 1976.

Cleugh, J., Prince Rupert , 1934.

Wilkinson, C. A., Prince Rupert the Cavalier , 1934.

Edinger, G. A., Rupert of the Rhine , 1936.

Fergusson, B. E., Rupert of the Rhine , 1952.

Knight, F. E., Rupert, Prince of Cavaliers , 1967.

Ashley, M., Rupert of the Rhine , 1976.

Morrah, P., Prince Rupert of the Rhine , 1976.

11—Endymion Porter

Townshend, D., The Life and Letters of Mr. Endymion Porter , 1897.

Huxley, G., Endymion Porter: the Life of a Courtier, 1587-1640 , 1959.

12—Peter Paul Rubens

Sainsbury, W. N., Original Unpublished Papers Illustrative of the Life of Sir Peter Paul Rubens , 1859.

Magurn, R. S., The Letters of Peter Paul Rubens , 1955.

13—Sir Benjamin Rudyerd

Manning, J. A. (ed.), The Memoirs of Benjamin Rudyerd, containing his Speeches and Poems , 1841.

14—Oliver Cromwell

Firth, C. H., Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England , 1900.

Ashley, M. P., The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell , 1957.

Hill, J. E. C. Oliver Cromwell , 1958.

Fraser, A., Cromwell, Our Chief of Men , 1975.

15—Sir John Eliot

Forster, J., Sir John Eliot: a Biography , 2 vols, 1864.

Hulme, H., The Life of Sir John Eliot, 1592-1632: a Struggle for Parliamentary Freedom , 1957.

16—John Hampden

Nugent, G. G., Memorials of John Hampden, his Party and his Times , 2 vols, 1831.

Williamson, H. R., John Hampden , 1933.

Adair, J., John Hampden the Patriot , 1976.

17—John Pym

Wade, C. S., John Pym , 1912.

Brett, S. R., John Pym: the Statesman of the Puritan Revolution , 1940.

Hexter, J. H., The Reign of King Pym , 1941, 1960.

Glow, L., 'Pym and Parliament', J.M.H. , 36, 1964, pp. 373-97.

18—Diego Sarmiento de Acuna, Count of Gondomar

Mattingly, G., 'A Game of Chess', Renaissance Diplomacy , 1955.

Carter, C. H., 'Gondomar: Ambassador to James I', H.J. , VII, 1964.

19—The Earl of Essex

Snow, V. F., Essex the Rebel, the Life of Robert Devereux, the third Earl of Essex 1591-1646 , 1970.

20—Lord Cottington

Havran, M. J., Caroline Courtier, The Life of Lord Cottington , 1973.

21—William Harvey

Keynes, G., The Life of William Harvey , 1966.

R—Essay Collections and Discussions on the Causes of the Civil Wars

Hill, J. E. C. English Revolution, 1640 , 3rd. ed. 1955.

Aiken, W. A. and Henning, B. D. (eds), Conflict in Stuart England , 1960.

Fisher, F. J. (ed.), Essays in the Economic and Social History of Tudor and Stuart England , 1961.

Carter, C. H. (ed.), From the Renaissance to the Counter-Reformation , 1966.

Taylor, P. A. M., The Origins of the English Civil War , 1966.

Innes, E. W. (ed.), The English Revolution 1600-1660 , 1968.

Parry, R. H. (ed.), The English Civil War and After , 1970.

Reinmuth, H. S. (ed.), Early Stuart Studies , 1970.

Russell, C. (ed.), The Origins of the English Civil War , 1973.

Stone, L., The Causes of the English Revolution, 1529-1642 , 1973.

Manning, B. (ed.), Politics, Religion and the English Civil War , 1973.

Elton, G. R., Studies in Tudor and Stuart Politics and Government (papers and reviews), 2 vols, 1974.

Richardson, R. C., The Debate on the English Revolution , 1977.

Pennington, D. and Thomas, K., Puritans and Revolutionaries: Essays in Seventeenth Century History Presented to Christopher Hill , 1978.

Clark, P., Smith, A. G. R. and Tyacke, N., The English Commonwealth 1547-1640: Essays in Politics and Society Presented to Joel Hurstfield , 1979.

Morrill, J. (ed.) Reactions to the English Civil War 1642-1649 , 1982.

Sharpe, K. (ed.), Faction and Parliament , 1978.

S—General Works

Finally, the monumental histories of the period, which are indispensable:

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of, The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England , several eds, 3 vols, 1702-4; 6 vols, 1888.

Gardiner, S. R., History of England from the Accession of James I to the Outbreak of the Civil War 1603-42 , 10 vols, 1883-4.

Gardiner, S. R., History of the Great Civil War, 1642-9 , 4 vols, 1893.

Also

D'Ewes, S., The Autobiography [to 1636] and Correspondence [to 1649] , 2 vols, 1845.

Verney Family, Memoirs of the Verney Family from the letters . . . at Claydon House , 2 vols, 1925.

Wedgwood, C. V., The Thirty Years War , 1938.

Firth, C. H., Essays Historical and Literary , 1938.

Wormald, B., Clarendon, Politics, History and Religion 1640-1660 , 1951.

Ashley, M. England in the Seventeenth Century , 1952, 1978.

Aylmer, G., The Struggle for the Constitution 1603-1689 , 1963.

Roots, I., The Great Rebellion, 1642-1660 , 1966.

Pennington, D. H., Seventeenth-Century Europe , 1970.

Cooper, J. P., 'The Fall of the Stuart Monarchy' in The New Cambridge Modern History , Vol. IV, 1971.

Hill, J. E. C., Change and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century England , 1975.

Manning, B., The English People and the English Revolution 1640-49 , 1976.

Ashton, R., The English Civil War, Conservatism and Revolution 1603-1649 , 1978.

White, S. D., Sir Edward Coke and the Grievances of the Commonwealth , 1979.

Ashton, R., The City and the Court , 1979.

Woods, T. P. S., Prelude to Civil War, 1642: Mr Justice Malet and the Kentish Petition , 1980.

Fletcher, A., The Outbreak of the English Civil War , 1981.